Vertigo - an unpleasant sensation of movement of objects that are around, or himself. According to statistics, dizziness - one of the most common complaints of patients to the doctor. The causes of vertigo can be a variety of diseases.
A healthy person feels equilibrium by signals from the proprioceptive, visual and vestibular systems originating in the cortex. The brain, in turn, sends impulses to the eye, and skeletal muscle that provides the desired position of the eyeballs and stable posture. If the flow of impulses from the vestibular cortex departments in the parietal and temporal lobe is broken, the illusion of movement of surrounding objects or your own body.
Types of dizziness
Dizziness when brain disorders. It is due to abnormalities of the cerebellum. The causes of dizziness are can serve as a tumor, head injury, displacement of the cerebellum or hydrocephalus, vascular disorders of the brain, cervical spine injury. Sudden and severe vertigo can be a symptom of a heart attack the cerebellum. The reason may also be a reception or chemical drugs, which include the barbiturates, and anticonvulsants, causing dizziness, drowsiness and confusion.
Psychogenic dizziness. As a rule, it appears because of extreme fatigue or after a strong emotional experience. At the same time the patient may feel a sense of instability, weakness, confusion in his head. Pathological conditions that cause dizziness, can become mental disorders such as anxiety with panic attacks, depersonalization, hysteria.
Vertigo in the pathology of the ear. It is caused by lesions of various structures: the vessels and nerves of the Eustachian tube, the vestibular apparatus. Combined, usually with tinnitus and pain, loss of hearing. The simplest cause of vertigo is cerumen impaction in the external ear canal.
Dizziness eye of nature. It occurs primarily in healthy people as a result of too much visual stimulation. Also, the reason for this may be dizziness paralysis of the eye muscles, which leads to disruption of the projection of objects on the retina, because of what occurs in the brain "wrong" picture.
How to determine the cause of dizziness?
There are about 80 causes of vertigo. So, dizziness resulting from violations of the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear or defeat, called peripheral. If dizziness results from diseases of the brain, it is called a central.
The character of dizziness, symptoms occurring at the same time, the frequency and duration of attacks help determine the true cause of vertigo:
Hearing loss, the presence of secretions from the ear usually indicates inflammation of the inner ear. Advantageously the treatment of vertigo while conservative.
If vertigo is accompanied by nausea and vomiting, hearing loss, tinnitus, then there may be Meniere's syndrome. If the hearing disorder does not occur, then there may be vestibular neuritis. When neuritis there is a sudden and severe dizziness when standing or head movements enhanced sense of rotation.
With strong tinnitus, sudden unilateral deafness and vomiting about 50% it is safe to say perilymphatic fistula. Also fistula can manifest hearing impaired, strong or light-headed.
If you experience dizziness and unilateral hearing loss should be checked for the presence of tumors in the brain. Often, tumors occurs first dizzy, and then a strong, and often is accompanied by gradually increasing headaches. When determining the position of the body is characterized by increased dizziness.
Stroke and transient ischemic attack accompanied by dizziness, weakness in limbs, diplopia, loss of coordination, numbness.
If dizziness occurs, along with a sense of disorientation, unsteadiness, it is enhanced by a sudden movement, a feeling of pain and limited mobility of the cervical spine, you should check for the presence of disease in the cervical region.
If dizziness is preceded by a spinal injury or head, then the most likely cause is a traumatic brain or "whiplash" injury.
When a slight dizziness while traveling in public transport, car or train, travel on water, the most likely cause is a transport motion sickness.
If dizziness is due to a sharp change in the body in space, it is benign positional vertigo. This disease can be detected with a simple test position.
When basilar migraine headache before severe dizziness can occur, which can be both short-term and long-term (up to several hours). It is accompanied by, as a rule, nausea and vomiting, tinnitus, and other neurological symptoms.
Diagnosis of vertigo
Important in the diagnosis of vertigo - to identify the cause. Given the great variety of possible reasons, it presents certain difficulties.
The doctor tries to find out from the patient all the symptoms that accompany dizziness, defines his character (paroxysmal or persistent), dizziness affects whether a change in body position, whether he was not preceded by a spinal injury or head. Recognizes, whether the patient takes any medications, etc.
In order to clarify the reasons for the doctor prescribes the following studies:
general blood analysis;
X-rays of the cervical spine;
MRI of the brain.
Treatment of vertigo
Advantageously the treatment of vertigo system is symptomatic. Etiological treatment is carried out only in a narrow range of diseases (basilar migraine, bacterial labyrinthitis, temporal lobe epilepsy, stem stroke, cholesteatoma, etc.).
To avoid dizziness vestibuloliticheskie used drugs affecting the vestibular receptors and central vestibular structures. Use as antihistamines, tranquilizers. Metoclopramide helps get rid of nausea and vomiting. Prolonged dehydration and dizziness spend intravenous diazepam.
Recently, the treatment of vertigo performed using betahistine hydrochloride. Especially the positive effect of its application is marked with Meniere's disease.