Dislocations are mutual displacement of the articular ends of bones articulate with each other. The shift in the joint dislocation - resistant, limited mobility and physiological pronounced pain syndrome.
Types of dislocations
Dislocations of joints are classified into the following main types depending on the nature of their origin:
It occurs as a result of mechanical action on the joint, such as a fall or collision. This type of dislocation, usually accompanied by discontinuities in the joint capsule. Traumatic dislocations often complicated fractures pinching of soft tissue damage to the skin, nerves and tendons.
This type of dislocation of joints refers to the pathologies of the musculoskeletal system and there is a further stage of intrauterine fetal development. The most common congenital hip dislocation.
Pathological dislocation of joints occur as a result of inflammation and further destruction of the articular ends of the bones under the influence of diseases such as osteomyelitis, tuberculosis, and so on. Prognosis and treatment policy is primarily built on the treatment of the underlying disease, taking into account the maximum possible recovery of mobility of the affected joint.
Education habitual dislocation is most characteristic of the shoulder joint. Habitual dislocation of the shoulder is formed in the case after the trauma immobilization joint fixation was inadequate at the time. The short period of the immobilization leads to the fact that in consequence of the shoulder dislocation occurs repeatedly, as a result of the slightest physical effort or a careless movement. To eliminate the effects of habitual dislocation is usually chosen tactic operative surgery, aimed at normalizing the status of ligamentous apparatus.
The origin of dislocations may be either congenital (in utero emerging hip dislocation) and the nature of the acquired (trauma or inflammatory diseases of the tissues surrounding the joint).
The most common causes dislocation of joints are the following factors:
- A fall or blow, with a sharp touch of the joint with a solid surface, such as a fall from a blow on the elbow is dislocated shoulder;
- A sudden and significant reduction of muscles;
- The physical impact on the joint itself or the surrounding region;
- Unnatural and strong straightening or bending of the joint.
The most common symptoms of a dislocation include:
- At the time of injury is heard typical cotton;
- Formed around the injured joint swelling and swelling (the most common symptom of dislocation);
- A sharp and severe pain;
- With nerve damage, decreased sensitivity;
- Limited mobility;
- Tingling and numbness;
- Pale and cold skin;
- Visual distortion, etc.
Specific symptoms vary from dislocation of the place where the injured joint.
Dislocated shoulder are the most common type of traumatic dislocations of origin (according to statistics - more than half of all cases). This fact is explained by the peculiarities of the anatomical structure of the shoulder joint: a disproportionate ratio of the articular surfaces, not strong enough by nature anterior muscle department, large motor range in different planes, the volume of the joint capsule and so on.
Shoulder Dislocation usually occurs as a result of indirect effects, in the fall of the elbow or forearm, almost one hundred percent of the time accompanied by rupture of the capsule, sometimes with damage to the rotator cuff and the shoulder hump of a large margin (often dislocated shoulder - in elderly patients).
Traumatic dislocation of the hip dislocation in the global stats diagnosed relatively rare (less than 7 percent of the total number of cases). The leader iliac dislocation of the hip (85 percent), followed by - obturator, sciatic and PST hip dislocation.
Subspecies hip dislocations depending on the direction of the power of influence on the head are classified as follows:
- Iliac (caudineural);
- Obturator (anteroinferior);
- Sciatic (lowback);
- PST (the anterior dislocation of the hip).
First Aid dislocation
In order to provide first aid to the victim dislocation needed fixing (providing immobility) certainly in that position, which it adopted after the injury, always laying on a cold compress to the place of the injured joint.
Attempts by an independent and unqualified reposition dislocated joint in any case inadmissible because only an experienced doctor in a medical institution can accurately determine whether the dislocation is not combined with broken or fractured bones.
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