Brief description of the disease
Diphtheria is an infectious character and is transmitted by airborne droplets. The source of infection could be a sick man or a healthy carrier of diphtheria bacteria. Healthy carriers of diphtheria bacteria possess antitoxic immunity, stand firm against pathogen infection.
Diphtheria is characterized by inflammation of the mouth and throat, at least - the genitals, eyes and open wounds. Even rarer case of simultaneous failure of several organs.
Symptoms of diphtheria
Diphtheria - diphtheria bacillus. Getting on the mucosa (or injured skin surface) actively produces toxins that cause necrosis of epithelial tissue. Then the toxins enter the blood, and there is general intoxication.
The main symptoms of diphtheria - weakness and pale skin. On examination, the throat, the symptoms of diphtheria, you will notice a grayish patina covering the enlarged tonsils, larynx and pharynx side walls. Difficulty swallowing and sore throat can also be the primary symptoms of diphtheria. Along with all grow and become painful cervical lymph nodes, swollen mucous membranes of the throat and soft tissues of the neck. Diphtheria in children may be accompanied by loss of consciousness, high fever, chills. There is also excessive sweating, tachycardia.
The more toxins identified pathogen, the vast area of epithelial damage and dangerous general intoxication. Caught in the blood of the toxin quickly penetrates the tissue and may cause malfunction of the heart and nervous system.
Treatment of diphtheria
With the emergence of the first signs of diphtheria requires immediate hospitalization. The success of the treatment of diphtheria in many respects depends on the timely introduction of antitoxic serum: the sooner it is applied, the lower the risk of complications and death. The dose of the PDS (diphtheria serum) is assigned a doctor and depends on the severity of diphtheria. Before the introduction of serum, usually the sample held on the sensitivity to the drugs contained therein. The diluted serum was injected in small amounts into the patient's forearm and after 30 minutes checked formed papules. If the size does not exceed the permissible 10 mm, enter another dose of serum, undiluted, but not curative (same sample). After half an hour the reaction in the absence of intramuscularly administered therapeutic serum.
Bed rest diphtheria patient is determined depending on the form of the disease. Power of hospital should be liquid (semi) not to injure oral mucosa and oropharynx. Once away from the mucous plaque, the patient can be transferred to a normal diet. Concurrently, the treatment of diphtheria, an antibiotic is prescribed and disinfecting solutions for gargling.
Prevention of diphtheria
The main measure of diphtheria has always been immunized, ie vaccination against diphtheria population. The composition of the vaccine included toxoid - the same diphtheria toxin secreted by the agent, only weakened. The vaccine provides immunity against diphtheria for 10 years.
Vaccinations against diphtheria have virtually no contraindications, which helps prevent serious consequences for the organism, caused by the disease. Firstly, diphtheria strikes at the heart, causing serious damage and heart failure. Secondly, it disrupts the nervous system, leading to paralysis of the soft palate, edema of the eyelids and strabismus. Thirdly, there may be irregularities in the kidney - a consequence of toxic nephrosis. And, fourthly, can develop pneumonia - inflammation of the lung tissue with damage to the alveoli.
After immunized against diphtheria can feel malaise, weakness, and injection site swelling and redness appears. Such a reaction of the organism to normal attenuated diphtheria toxin, moreover, it is short-term. More serious side reactions tend to occur rarely, 10-14 days after immunization.