General characteristics of the disease
Diabetes - one of the most common diseases in the world. More often than diabetes are diagnosed each year only to cardiovascular and oncological diseases. According to rough estimates suffer from diabetes today, 3% of the world population. And according to forecasts of physicians in 15-20 years it is expected to double increase in people with diabetes.
The causes of diabetes
The main cause of diabetes - carbohydrate metabolism disturbances that occurred in the body. This phenomenon is caused by one of two things: either the body fails to take insulin, or it does not cover the amount of human needs.
There are many theories about the causes of diabetes. One of them - a genetic etiology of the disease. Familial predisposition to disease common in type I diabetes. It provokes a viral infection (influenza, measles or mumps), activating the body's process of destruction insulinobrazuyuschih cells.
Hereditary cause of diabetes is also possible with the type II disease. But in this case, the disease is caused by innate immunity of body tissues to insulin. In a family with a predisposition to the disease type I diabetes occurs in 7-10% of family, and type II diabetes is likely to get 80-100% already.
Among the causes of diabetes is also known as overweight patients and pancreatic diseases: malignant neoplasms organ or pancreatitis.
A possible cause of diabetes can serve as trauma, damage the tissues of the pancreas and disturb its function. Moreover, the causes of diabetes include stress, and old age of the patient. Chance of sick increased by 2 times with each passing decade.
Abuse sweets, as one of the possible causes of diabetes, physicians are not seriously considered, but exactly as long as the passion of sugar does not cause a person to obesity or diseases of the pancreas.
Types of diabetes
Type I diabetes, as already mentioned, it is caused by the destruction insulinobrazuyuschih cells. This disease is typical of young people.
One of the first symptoms of type I diabetes is frequent urination. Since the human body tries to remove excess glucose. Polyuria leads to an intense feeling of thirst and a large fluid intake.
With type I diabetes, the patient suffers from the increased load on the kidneys, dehydration and accumulation of ketone bodies. Ketoacidosis is one of the complications of diabetes, may result in patient condition or precoma diabetic coma.
Type II diabetes is more common in type I disease. At risk are patients who are overweight or older than 40 years.
With this type of diabetes mellitus in humans produces a normal amount of insulin. However, despite this, the patient's blood contained an increased amount of glucose. With type II diabetes the patient's body has a low insulin resistance, ie, poor susceptibility to the effects of insulin.
Severity of the symptoms of diabetes mellitus type II depends on the degree of insensitivity to insulin. According to the severity of the disease it decided to allocate an easy, moderate to severe type II diabetes.
Pancreatic type of diabetes develops due to injuries of tissues of the pancreas with pancreatitis, tumors, as well as from the consequences of an unsuccessful surgery, trauma, or alcohol abuse.
Symptoms of diabetes
Among the main symptoms of both types of diabetes is called:
- frequent urination,
- increased thirst,
- dry and itchy skin,
- weight loss
- cramps in the calves,
- decrease in sharpness of vision.
At the initial stage of the disease symptoms of diabetes, is usually not significant. Later, with the progression of hyperglycemia, there is a possibility of situations sharp rise in blood glucose levels and the development of critical conditions that require emergency medical care.
Diagnosis of diabetes
The diagnosis is established by the classic symptoms of diabetes and laboratory test data. The diagnosis of diabetes is checked blood glucose level of the patient. In controversial cases, we recommend conducting a glucose load.
According to the rules of a healthy person in the blood glucose values do not exceed 6, 6 mmol / l glucose and 11, 1 mmol / L after meals. The presence of sugar in the urine of the patient - another symptom of diabetes diagnosis.
Treatment of diabetes
Treatment of symptomatic diabetes. It includes diet therapy, drug therapy and exercise therapy. The main goal of treatment in diabetes mellitus - to normalize metabolic processes in the body and keep the patient's performance.
Type II diabetes is called insulin dependent. The main role in the treatment of diabetes of this type play a diet and exercise for weight normalization.
In the initial stages of the disease to restore carbohydrate metabolism in the body can help to lose weight. The recommended diet for overweight patients - at least carbohydrate and high-calorie foods, non-canned food, meats, fatty meats, mayonnaise, sour cream, nuts, ice cream, jams, chocolates, etc.
Physical activity as one of the supporting methods of treating diabetes and help lower blood glucose levels to increase insulin secretion and sensitivity to the tissues.
In the later stages of the disease in the treatment of type II diabetes used drugs that increase insulin sensitivity and inhibits the function of the intestine from the splitting of glucose: biguanides, thiazolidinediones, inhibitors of α-glucosidase, etc.
In the treatment of type I diabetes using insulin. There are drugs of different duration of action of insulin: short, intermediate and long-term. From the time of effect of the drug depends on the frequency of injections designed to replace the function of the pancreas to develop their own insulin.
The treatment of diabetes type I insulin for life. And an important part of treatment of the disease is to teach the patient skills of controlling blood glucose levels and the ability to independently inject themselves insulin.
Driving the treatment of diabetes is made individually for each patient, taking into account his condition, weight and age. Separate uncontrolled diabetes treatment with insulin is extremely dangerous to your health.
Folk treatment of diabetes
As a subsidiary to the main methods of treatment of the disease is well established following the recipes of the national diabetes treatment:
- Collecting birch buds, hawthorn fruit, leaves Veronica centaury and burdock in the proportions of 2: 3: 1: 5: 5.
- Drug collection of leaves cranberries, St. John's wort, corn silk, peppermint, blueberry leaves cottonweed and in the proportion of 2: 4: 2: 2: 4: 1.
Widely used in the national treatment of diabetes and collecting the roots of licorice, blueberry leaves and fruits juniper, taken in equal amounts.
To effective national treatment of diabetes include collection elderberry bark, veronica, shepherd's purse, horsetail Sophora fruit, hawthorn and wild rose, also taken in equal proportions.
All of the above compounds are used in the national treatment of diabetes, help normalize carbohydrate metabolism in the body and prevent the emergence of nephrology and ophthalmic complications of the disease.