The crack of the rectum or anal fissure, is one of the most common diseases proctologic. It is a defect of the rectal mucosa, linear, oval or triangular shape, ranging in size from several millimeters to 2 cm. Disease susceptible to people of any age, including frequent fractures in children rectum in women, this pathology is more common because of the anatomical features of the structure of the anus.
Causes of cracks rectum
Causes of cracks rectum - inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and mechanical trauma. Often these two reasons combined.
Inflammation in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, including the upper parts, such as gastritis or cholecystitis, increases the risk of crack of rectum. Gastrointestinal systems communicate with each other, so inflammation in one section leads to pathology mucosa throughout the gastrointestinal tract, increasing its vulnerability.
Mechanical injury rectum happens during the passage of the stool is too dense, and in contact with a foreign body into the anus.
The combination of these two facts is often the cause of the cracks of a rectum at children under endobioze (aka bot simply worms). In this case, the lower part of the intestine is often inflamed and swollen, and worm eggs, are deposited in the anus, causing intense itching. As a result, combing the area of the anus, the baby can cause damage to the mucous membrane of the anal region, exacerbated by the passage of stool.
Symptoms of rectal fissures
There are acute and chronic forms of crack rectum. The chronic form occurs in the absence of treatment of acute disease.
The main symptom of fissures of the rectum - pain in the anus. In acute fracture rectal pain appears only during the act of defecation, it is intense, but it does not last more than 15 minutes. For chronic fissures of the rectum is characterized less intense but more prolonged pain. Pain may also occur independently of the act of defecation, for example during prolonged sitting.
As in the acute and in the chronic form one symptom of a crack can be rectal bleeding from the anus. As a rule, minor bleeding, blood scarlet, not mixed with the stool, as is the case with bleeding overlying gastrointestinal tract. Bleeding associated with defecation, and caused by the passage of stool through the dense damaged area.
Another characteristic symptom of fissures of the rectum - difficulty of defecation, and related constipation. Difficulties in bowel movements occur because of severe pain syndrome. Pain when passing stool, especially dense, it can be so intense that there is a reflex spasm of the sphincter of the anus. In the chronic form of the disease develops a fear of defecation, which only exacerbates the symptoms of fissures of the rectum as stool sealed and stronger injure the inflamed mucosa. Chronic fissure of the rectum may be accompanied by the release of pus from the anus.
At the crack of the rectum in children defecation accompanied by crying, the child tries to avoid the pot, capricious, also drew the attention of the blood in the stool or on a napkin.
Diagnostics cracks rectum
In the presence of characteristic symptoms of a crack rectal examination is carried out of the anus and used digital examination of the rectum. Because of the considerable pain and possible infection adrectal field retromanoskopiyu in this case try not to use, and in an emergency (for example, in cases of suspected tumor of the rectum) using a pre-anesthetic.
Inspection reveals in acute rectal fissures linear defect of the mucous membrane with smooth edges, and in chronic - oval or triangular defect with overgrown granulation and scar tissue.
In addition, conduct laboratory studies of blood (HIV, syphilis, hepatitis, blood sugar and general analysis) and feces. At the crack of the rectum in children necessarily examine feces on helminth eggs.
Treatment of fractures of the rectum
Treatment rectal fissures start to use drug therapy, and in case of failure, surgical intervention.
Medication crack rectum includes the following activities:
- Provision of regular soft stools that purpose is achieved dairy plant-based diet with plenty of fiber, as well as the appointment of enemas. Enema is administered daily, mild antiseptic solution, typically used for this purpose decoctions of medicinal herbs;
- The use of painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of rectal suppositories, micro-enemas and warm baths, and in severe cases, an injection directly into the fracture;
- Because most patients cracks rectum combined with other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, treatment of the underlying pathology is necessary.
In most cases, treatment of fractures of the rectum conservative methods is successful. However, in some cases, usually for chronic forms of the disease, accompanied by significant proliferation of granulation and scar tissue, more drastic measures are needed, then resort to surgery cracks rectum.
Currently, the operation is carried out cracks rectum minimally invasive methods - laser coagulation or cryodestruction. This bloodless techniques that do not require the use of general anesthesia and prolonged hospital stay.
In stubborn cases, as well as defects of large size, have resorted to the classical fracture surgery of the rectum. The operation is performed under general anesthesia, the dissection of the sphincter is excised edges cracks and subsequent suturing the wound edges. In the postoperative period prescribed the use of a local anti-inflammatory therapy for a month. You also need to diet, prevents the formation of solid stool.
People's treatment of fractures of the rectum
With regular use, and the correct approach national treatment cracks rectum very effectively. In fact, the folk remedies used to treat active cracks rectum and in traditional medicine. Very effective herbs in various forms - as pastes, infusions, tinctures, baths, enemas, as well as a medicinal tea. For topical use chamomile, sage, oak bark, yarrow. As microclysters apply aloe juice and kalanchoe. With a view to the overall impact on the gastrointestinal therapeutic use tea made from chamomile, sage, St. John's wort.
People's treatment of fractures of the rectum can be successfully combined with the use of pharmaceuticals by reducing the pill burden on the body, which is especially important in chronic forms of the disease.