General characteristics of the disease
The term "colon cancer" or "colorectal" cancer is commonly understood as a malignant tumor, located in one of the departments of the large intestine: the blind, the colon or rectum, as well as the anal canal. Colon cancer - one of the most common cancers in developed countries residents. Most colon cancers are found only oncology mammary glands, lungs and stomach.
The reasons that cause colon cancer include the total number of factors: the chronic disease of the intestine to the errors of diet and heredity. At risk are the patients, whose family has been diagnosed cases of colon cancer or people with a lot of meat in the diet. In countries with widespread tradition of vegetarianism, Central Africa, India and so on. G., Colon cancer is much rarer.
The risk of developing colon cancer is higher in patients with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis or colorectal polyps. Symptoms of colon cancer are diagnosed more often in the elderly over 60 years. In chronic bowel disease for more than 20 years, the likelihood of developing colon cancer is about 30%.
Symptoms of colon cancer
The most typical symptoms of colon cancer include violations of stools, blood in the stool, a nagging pain in the stomach and false desires of bowel (tenesmus).
Blood in feces intestinal - colon cancer symptom almost all patients with this disease. To determine the presence of blood in the stool is often possible only with the help of a special analysis of occult blood in the stool. Externally, the disease may manifest pale skin and a feeling of weakness.
Explicit allocation of intestinal bleeding scarlet - a common symptom of colon cancer localized in the area of the anal canal or rectum. Impurities dark blood and mucus in the stools are a sign of colon cancer colon department.
For later stages of colon cancer characterized by one more reliable symptom of colon cancer complicated by a sense of incomplete evacuation, and later intestinal obstruction. Signs of colon cancer complicated forms include ascites (accumulation of fluid in the peritoneum) and hepatomegaly (enlarged liver sharp). It is also possible bowel perforation at the location of the tumor, requiring emergency surgery.
There are several classifications of colon cancer. The most famous of them is the allocation of colon cancer depends on the degree of tumor spread and metastasis.
A sign of colon cancer stage I tumor is the unit located in the mucosa and submucosa of the intestine. For stage II colon cancer characterized by tumor location within half a circumference of the intestine. For this stage of the disease it may be as another of the signs of colon cancer: a violation of the integrity of the intestinal wall tumor or metastases in nearby limfouzlah.Oba the symptoms of colon cancer occur in the stage III colon cancer. The vast size of the tumor and multiple metastases in distant organs - a sign of colon cancer stage IV.
Different types of colon cancer are differentiated also in the direction of growth of the tumor and its histological structure. The type and stage of colon cancer are determined by preoperative and intraoperative and during the revision of the intestine.
Diagnosis of colorectal cancer
Primary diagnosis "colon cancer" is placed on the basis of complaints of the patient and the digital rectal examination in the office of the proctologist. The laboratory and instrumental diagnostic methods for colon cancer include sigmoidoscopy, stool and blood tests, colonoscopy, barium enema, and ultrasound of the pelvis. The last step in the diagnosis of colon cancer is a biopsy of the tumor.
Due to the prevalence of the disease, any intestinal symptoms in people older than 50 years is considered as one of the possible symptoms of colon cancer. In the majority of cases the terrible diagnosis is not confirmed, and the patient diagnosed ulcerative colitis, or colon polyps.
If you confirm the preliminary diagnosis a patient with colon cancer is directed to a CT scan to determine the degree of prevalence of metastases in other organs.
Treatment of colon cancer
The main treatment for colon cancer - surgery with complete removal of the tumor and the metastatic foci. The success of the radical treatment of colon cancer depends on the stage of the disease, as well as on the correct preparation of the patient for surgery, her principles and features of the postoperative period.
Before surgery, a patient with colon cancer bezshlakovaya assigned diet and a course of cleansing the bowel procedures with the help of enemas, laxatives, and lavage. These measures help to maximize aseptic the treatment of colon cancer. The last step in the treatment of colon cancer after resection of the affected portion of the bowel disease is the formation of anastomosis - connection remaining departments intestine. So restored the natural passage of intestinal contents.
When colon cancer with metastases in the lymph nodes and distant organs the treatment of colon cancer is not radical, and symptomatic for the prevention of acute intestinal obstruction and reduce pain. If it is impossible to completely remove the tumor in a patient with cancer of the colon colostomy formed. It allows you to evacuate the intestinal contents to bypass the affected organ tumor. Part of the complex treatment of colon cancer is also a local and general effects of chemoradiation on tumor and metastases.