Chronic nephritis - a disease that develops as a result of untreated acute nephritis.
It is developing the disease, usually as a result of prolonged exposure to infectious foci kidney. Sometimes, chronic nephritis can develop without an acute stage of jade in the past. First, the chronic nature of the disease depends on the presence of infection in the body, inadequate treatment of acute nephritis in the past and adverse environmental conditions.
In chronic nephritis kidney anatomical changes occur, leading to the formation of fluid in the cell capsules (so called half moon), widespread vascular damage kidneys, degenerative changes in the tubular epithelium. All of these changes over time lead to zapustevaniyu individual glomeruli and renal scarring as a result of atrophy of certain areas of the renal parenchyma.
The course of chronic nephritis
During chronic nephritis should allocate such stages:
- Stage Renal compensation azotovydelitelnoy adequacy of renal function. Typically, this step is accompanied by symptoms of chronic nephritis, as swelling, hematuria, albuminuria, increased blood pressure. Sometimes these symptoms are not expressed in nature, there is only albuminuria.
- Stage renal decompensation, renal failure azotovydelitelnoy. At this stage, the amount of protein in the urine may fall swelling can also be reduced, but it becomes hypertension, conversely, more stable. The main symptoms of chronic nephritis at this stage is the initial failure of the kidneys and increase in levels of nitrogen slag. For this stage, characterized azotemicheskaya uremia.
Typically, a fatal outcome of chronic nephritis. The duration of the disease varies and may range 1-20 years and more. Death may occur as a cerebral hemorrhage, congestive heart failure, from secondary infections, etc.
Types of chronic nephritis
- Subacute extracapillary Jade
For this form is characterized by the formation of the cell fluid in the cavity of the capsule. Approximately six months after the onset of the disease is manifested resistant hypertension and persistent hematuria. Often one can observe symptoms of chronic nephritis, as persistent swelling, presence of azotemia, increasing anemia, high blood levels of creatinine and aromatic compounds as well as uremic symptoms that eventually lead to the end of the first two years of illness the patient dies.
- Nephrotic chronic nephritis. For this type of characteristic symptoms of chronic nephritis as persistent swelling, significant albuminuria and normal blood pressure. Anatomically, the species typical intracapillary nephritis with nephrotic changes in tubules. The swelling is not accompanied by shortness of breath and cyanosis, enhanced by receiving salty food and can keep for a long time (from several months to several years). If patients over a long period of edema die from infections that occur edema-free period, characterized by a general improvement of the patient. However, this is a temporary phenomenon, and in the future comes true death from chronic uremia.
- Mixed chronic nephritis
For this type of jade are characteristic persistent edema nephrotic lipoid-type, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular symptoms. Subsequently, these signs joins kidney failure. Usually, patients die from severe chronic uremia. For this form of chronic nephritis is also characteristic of death from bleeding in the brain, heart failure and infections.
- Chronic nephritis hypertensive type
This type of disease can occur long period of time is almost asymptomatic. A characteristic feature is only hypertensive symptoms usually occur in hypertension (vascular spasms, paresthesias, leg cramps, etc.). Anatomically intracapillary jade can be seen with visible signs of sclerosis of small arteries. The disease is usually found by chance when passing inspection. Chronic nephritis this type can last for many years, after which the patient develops chronic true picture of uremia.
Prevention of chronic nephritis
Prevention of chronic nephritis in the first place is to prevent an acute form of jade, its early diagnosis, timely and adequate treatment.
The course of chronic nephritis can be facilitated through a rational regime and treatment of focal infections and thus delay the onset of stage renal failure is not curable.
Treatment of chronic nephritis
It has long been in chronic kidney disease patients recommend certain hygienic mode: wearing woolen underwear firming not irritating food, accommodation in a warm and dry climate. In the treatment of chronic nephritis patients should avoid exposure to cold, heavy physical exertion, stress, medications, irritating kidneys and excessive eating. All these measures are aimed not only at creating optimal conditions for the work of the damaged organ, but also to facilitate the activities of the whole organism.
In the case of acute inflammatory disease of strong edema, weakening of the heart muscle and the manifestation of symptoms of uremic patients need bed rest.
In the treatment of chronic nephritis nephrotic type of prescribed salt-free diet rich in proteins, thyroidin, merkuzal. In case of complications streptococci and pneumococci prescribe penicillin, sulfonamide drugs. Patients showed a stay in a warm and dry climate, and receive cardiac and vasodilator drugs.
If the source of infection is found, the patient is assigned to the treatment of chronic nephritis by means of sulfonamide drugs and penicillin, physiotherapy techniques. In the case of satisfactory renal patient can recommend to conduct surgery. Removing the source of infection has a goal to stop the toxic-infectious effect on the body, as well as to eliminate the effect of the source nervnoreflektornogo irritation.
In the treatment of chronic nephritis patient administered a glucose solution under the skin and into the large amounts to counteract uremic toxicity. If you experience symptoms of uremic acidosis, the patient is prescribed the use of alkali and alkaline salt solutions.
Bleed favorably influences the manifestation of hypertensive and vascular symptoms. Against the individual symptoms of uremia used drugs affecting the brain centers.