General information about the disease
Chickenpox - a viral disease that has severe symptoms, complications are multiple and often ends with the death of a person. For chicken pox is characterized by: a pronounced intoxication, high temperature, the formation of blisters on the mucous membranes and skin. Even if the treatment was successful smallpox rash continues to harm the man, because after her disappearance on the skin is a lot of small and large ugly scars.
For several centuries, chickenpox was considered one of the most dangerous diseases, and has been a real disaster for all mankind. Detailed descriptions of the viral infection have been found in ancient documents dated 2-3 millennium BC This terrified the inhabitants of different countries inspired the devastating epidemic. Smallpox in children and adults led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people and crippled forever the few survivors. Significant progress in the fight against infection occurred only in the late 18th century, when British scientist E. Jenner published his famous report, in which he spoke about the successful smallpox vaccination. Since then, cases were recorded less and less, however, in Southeast Asia, South America and Africa, pockets of the disease remained until the mid-20th century.
In 1967, at the initiative of the Soviet Union, the World Health Organization adopted the program, which included mass vaccination of people from poor countries. Over the next few years have seen a steady decline in the incidence of chickenpox in 1980 by representatives of the WHO stated that the small pox in adults and children is no longer a danger to the inhabitants of our planet. Since then, the once dangerous disease, comparable to the scale of the plague epidemics killed a few people. All registered deaths were associated with infection or researchers, who continue to study the virus, or with complications after vaccination.
The epidemiology of the disease
Chickenpox infects only humans. In some laboratories, pilot programs, in which the virus tries to instill animals. Virtually all such studies have failed as smallpox rapidly killed, hitting an unfavorable environment.
The incubation period for chickenpox lasts from 8 to 14 days. All this time the patient is infectious to others. Infectious agents are found in bursting bubbles on the skin, mouth and even in samples of feces and urine. As a result, healthy people can become infected, and by airborne droplets and by direct skin contact with the patient. Note also that the virus remains viable for a long time, being on the bedding and clothing. It is for this reason that in the Middle Ages things dead people were burned immediately to prevent epidemics. Unlike many other illnesses suffered by small pox in children and adults does not produce immunity, so the only effective method of combating contagion is vaccination. It is especially important in the case of children up to 4 years, as they are most exposed to pathogens.
The clinical picture of the disease
In the initial stages of chicken pox is similar to the flu. Patients are observed:
- rapid temperature rise to critical levels;
- pain in the muscles and the lower back;
- frequent vomiting;
All this non-specific symptoms, which is extremely difficult to diagnose smallpox. As a result, the correct diagnosis is usually made only after the appearance of abundant rash on the limbs and the head of the patient. The bubbles are filled with a clear liquid at first, but after a few days, they are filled with pus and begin to resemble small boils. The rash disappears in 2-3 weeks, leaving a lifelong traces - pockmarks.
According to the severity of the symptoms varies from chickenpox severe to mild. In severe pox in adults and children leads to the drain filled with pus and blood pustules, high fever, intoxication. Varioloidnye (light) form of chickenpox may occur without fever, and sometimes without the rash, although, of course, such a development is unlikely, and recorded only those people who were once vaccinated against smallpox.
Treatment of Smallpox
Despite the fact that chicken pox defeated specific chemical preparations for the treatment of smallpox has not been developed. For hygiene patients make lotions and powders, washed the affected areas of the skin rash. Throughout the treatment of chickenpox patients should ensure bed rest, proper nutrition, and take care of calming medicines and warmers with ice. To prevent secondary infections used penicillin and sulfa drugs.
Prevention of epidemics
The patient must be in a separate room. All the people who had contact with him is subjected to quarantine inspection and vaccinated, and disinfect the premises. If preventive measures are taken in time, the likelihood is high that the chicken pox in children and adults will be cured before the first symptoms.