The human psyche is very vulnerable. It is able to react painfully to any changes in the body. As a result of severe intoxication, infectious diseases or brain damage organic nature of a person may experience a variety of mental disorders. Examples of these disorders include, and catatonia, which leads to a violation of the motor function of the body. This pathology has different forms and can occur in both adults and children.
There are two forms of catatonia, which can move into one another: stupor and excitement. Both of these conditions have in common that they lead to a pathological change of muscle tone in the patient. At the same time these forms of catatonia have significant differences:
- Stupor. This kind of mental disorders a significant increase occurs in skeletal muscle tone. Muscle spasms up with such force that the patient stops for a long time in one position, even very uncomfortable. Often it is the position of the fetus resembles the placement in the uterus, ie the fetal position. When catatonic patient refuses any communication and does not respond to painful stimuli. Change the position of his body is almost impossible, it often persists for weeks or even months;
- Excitation. This condition manifests muscular disinhibition. This form of catatonia can be exalted or aggressive. In the first case, the patient plays the fool, singing, takes mannered poses. In the second it is often the source of danger, or to others, or to himself, depending on the orientation of aggression.
The consciousness of a patient under any form of catatonia can remain clear enough or grow dark.
The set of symptoms specific to motor disturbances in mental illness, make catatonic syndrome. It can also manifest excitement or stupor. In this excited state, or it develops gradually begins acutely. In the first case, the patient is no delirium, he laughs without cause, repeatedly repeats the same words. In acute onset of the disease the person becomes dangerous to others, his actions are destructive in nature.
Catatonic stupor when divided into the following types:
- Cataleptic. The patient takes a so-called waxy flexibility, freezing in a pose adopted by them on their own or under the influence of people around them. This form is characterized by the absence of catatonia in his reaction to the loud appeal, but if questions are asked in a whisper, the patient begins to respond to them;
- Negativistic. This kind of catatonic stupor when characterized by the fact that any attempt to change the foreign position of the patient, or at least move him met with resistance;
- Stupor with astonishment. This kind of catatonia associated with the most severe manifestation of muscle spasm. In most cases the patient is in a fetal position.
Catatonic syndrome is often accompanied by a change in symptoms. The patient is able to move from a state of excitement into a stupor, and vice versa. In addition, it is possible the alternation of different types of chronic stupor during catatonia.
Treatment of catatonia
Diagnosis of catatonia requires distinguishing from other kinds of mental disorders. To confirm it is required that the patient for at least two weeks, clearly manifested at least one of the following: stupor, agitation, negativism, waxy flexibility. When treatment of catatonia is always directed at the cause of the disease, because such mental state may be caused by intoxication of the body, and organic brain damage.
A patient with catatonia is sent to a psychiatric hospital. At the same time it should be delivered to the treatment site, accompanied by medical staff. The main therapeutic measures are to appoint special agents. These funds are designed to eliminate the cause of catatonia and normalize brain activity. If after applying the drug therapy improvements in the patient's condition is not observed, it is assigned electroconvulsive therapy.
In addition to the mental state of catatonia when required and control the functioning of all body systems. In severe cases the patient may refuse food, which leads to the need for medical administration of nutrients in the body.
Catatonia, treatment is quite difficult, is a complex mental disorders, often associated with schizophrenia. It significantly affects the quality of life of the patient, as well as gives a lot of problems the people around him, first of all, family. To avoid severe consequences of the disease and do not tighten, you should at the very beginning to seek specialized help.