Cavities (Caries dentium) - illness million
Dental caries - tooth decay, which is localized and progressive nature. Caries begins with the destruction of organic acids inorganic bases tooth enamel. In the process of demineralization inevitably be organic tooth decay with subsequent formation of cavities and infection. According to statistics, more than 95% of people suffer from tooth decay in a given stage.
The susceptibility of the tooth surface to dental caries depends on many factors:
- Genetics, i.e. heredity;
- general state of health;
- preventive and hygienic measures mouth;
- proper, balanced diet;
- the anatomical features of the tooth surface. In between the teeth and recesses are created favorable conditions for the formation of plaque and fixing;
- saturation of tooth enamel fluoride. The normal indicators this element makes the enamel more resistant to acids;
- the quantity and quality of the saliva, its buffering properties deacidification.
The main causes of tooth decay
Dentists all over the world are the following reasons for tooth decay:
- Poor hygienic condition of the oral cavity;
- The weakening of the immune system in general and the presence of chronic disease organism. Of childhood infectious diseases (tuberculosis, or rickets), which disrupt the formation of dental tissues;
- Genetic predisposition to human caries. That it explains much of caries in children;
- Potable water containing low or high content of phosphorus, fluoride, calcium, etc.
- Diet. Lack of vitamins and minerals, the lack of standards in the ratio of protein and carbohydrates, a decrease in the diet products of natural origin, the abundance of food with high sugar content, etc. provoke the appearance of the disease;
- The geographical features of the area and social factors (such as work in hazardous occupations).
Causes of dental caries do not act alone in the onset and development of caries. It is a systemic process, which consists of a plurality of factors.
Stages of tooth decay
Caries is a progressive disease, has several stages of development. Brief look at the main stages of tooth decay:
- Elementary - macula cariosa (stage spots) when demineralization begins with the fact that leaves a natural shine enamel and appear gray or light, dark brown spots. In this step, caries usually asymptomatic.
- Surface (caries superficialis) and medium (caries media) caries can be combined into a single step, which is characterized by the occurrence of destructive changes in the field of tooth enamel stains. The main symptom of the disease at this stage - the emergence of short-term pain for thermal and chemical stimuli (cold, hot, sour, salty). Thus, a cavity (defect) with the only difference that the surface caries - in the enamel, and with an average in the tissue of the tooth (dentin).
- Stage caries profunda - deep caries - is characterized by a deep cavity, painful sensations in the thermal, mechanical and chemical influences. In some cases, there are signs of inflammation of the neurovascular bundle (pulp).
For special kind of tooth decay can be attributed Cervical caries - the name corresponds to a place on the tooth caries, in the neck of the tooth at the gum. Cervical caries arises and develops in this place due to the weak layer of tooth enamel in the neck and the inaccessibility of the place at the procedure of dental care.
The process of tooth decay is slow, so it is easy to visually detect the adult and to the development of caries had to continue, you should immediately consult your dentist. Tooth decay in children arise from the same symptoms as adults, so parents are required to periodically check the condition of the baby teeth (even milk), and when the first visible signs of caries lead the child to the doctor. In this case, the development of caries in the child will stop.
Diagnosis of dental caries
Diagnosis of dental caries is possible only if you regularly visit the dentist. Deep caries diagnosed without difficulty - visually. Diagnosis of dental caries in the early stages is carried out using X-ray and thermodiagnostics.
Diagnosis of dental caries performed by primary "translyuminestsentsii", ie raying teeth to the back of the strong beam of light. Early diagnosis allows the physician to caries treatment and spend time to stop tooth decay.
At the initial stage is carried out by treatment of caries remineralization therapy (application) from pre-treatment of the tooth plaque.
Surface Treatment of caries, middle and deep stages carried out by removal of the affected tissue. Next, the filling of cavities. It must be remembered that the earlier treatment of caries tooth filling of preserves healthy longer.
If treatment caries hold time, the cavities may become more severe form, such as in periodontitis go or pulp, with the consequent loss of the tooth.
Prevention of tooth decay
Preventing tooth decay is much reduced the risk of disease. Especially important for parents to monitor implementation of preventive measures. Tooth decay in children, especially young age - a "merit" of parents who did not respond in time for visible changes in teeth or to the complaints of the child.
The preventive measures include:
- Hygienic prevention of dental caries - a care for the entire oral cavity, the use of fluoride toothpaste, the use of solutions or pastes with chlorhexidine, use of xylitol (gum);
- Medical prophylaxis - a general improvement of the body, eliminating the strain of the teeth, holding certain events, such as sealing (sealing) fissures and blind "holes" that can form plaque;
- Regular visits to the dentist.