Endometrial cancer is a leader in the prevalence of all cancers. It occupies the 7th place among the causes of death from cancer diseases.
About 100 thousand European women each year develop cancer of the endometrium, and every year this number increases. The most susceptible to the disease of women older than 50 years (90%).
Endometrial cancer: stage and risk factors
In most cases (about 75%) diagnosed in the early stages of the disease as the most common symptom of endometrial cancer, 1 st degree (with involvement in the oncologic process only the uterus) are dysfunctional uterine bleeding. In such cases, 90% of women are cured of the disease. Only 25% of women diagnosed with cancer of the endometrium are premenopausal, while most patients are in menopause.
The most common causes of endometrial cancer are:
- inflammation of the pelvic organs,
- endometrial hyperplasia,
- hormonal disorders,
- uterine fibroids,
- frequent change of sexual partners,
- cervical erosion.
If you have symptoms of endometrial cancer for diagnostic use the following techniques:
- Pap sample;
- endometrial biopsy or fractional curettage;
Risk factors for the occurrence of endometrial cancer of the uterus are:
- late menopause;
- taking certain medications (oral contraceptives, tamoxifen, an estrogen);
In accordance with the classification of the 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics distinguish the following stages of endometrial cancer:
- 1 Cancer process is limited to the body of the uterus;
- 1A myometrial invasion absent or have a size less than a half of its thickness;
- 1B Invasion of the myometrium, more than half of its thickness;
- 2 Tumour stroma cervix, uterus but is limited;
- 3 tumor has spread locally and / or regionally;
- 3A tumor has grown into the serosa of the uterus, there are metastases in the fallopian tubes or ovaries;
- 3B The tumor has spread to the vagina and / or tissue parameters;
- 3C1 pelvic lymph nodes amazed tumor;
- Amazed 3C2 tumor para-aortic lymph nodes with or without pelvic lymph node involvement;
- 4 There is the germination of the bladder mucosa, rectal, and / or distant metastasis;
- 4A Germination mucous bladder or rectum;
- 4B Distant metastases, including the abdomen and inguinal lymph nodes.
Types of treatment for endometrial cancer
At the first stage of the disease usually carried removing body, cervix and appendages on two sides, and surgery may be performed laparoscopically. Expediency lymphadenectomy today is a lot of debate.
During the operation, a thorough inspection and palpation of the exposed other organs of the abdomen and pelvic peritoneal washings were also taken.
Patients with stage 1-2 endometrial cancer who have contraindications to surgery - diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular and other diseases - is carried out external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy.
Treatment of endometrial cancer more severe patients in the doctors' council discussed individually. Prevention of endometrial cancer is to appoint women menopausal estrogen combined with progesterone.