Bruising is closed soft tissue damage. Perhaps there is no person who has not experienced would imagine this kind of injury. In most cases, do not require treatment of injuries, and heal spontaneously. Typically, when injury occurs compromising the integrity of tissues other than the gap of small vessels (capillaries). But sometimes the injury can cause significant damage, such as a head injury. In addition, the injury may be accompanied by other injuries such as a fracture. In this case we speak about the bruised wounds.
Symptoms of injury
Symptoms of injury are all familiar with - it's a sharp pain in the immediate site of injury, swelling and redness. In the case of low-energy injury pain subsides after a few minutes, and redness at the site there is a hematoma, which is popularly called a bruise. A hematoma is caused by hemorrhage, which occurred as a result of rupture of small capillaries. The size of the hematoma does not always depend on the strength of injury. It has the value of the permeability of the capillaries, as well as the place where the injury arose. People with increased capillary permeability slight bruise or even a careless touch can cause significant hematoma, while a strong bruise can not express themselves outdoor hematoma, while the internal bleeding is quite significant.
Pain after a strong symptom of a persistent injury. Character pain changes over time, from abrupt beginning, when exposed to a traumatic factor to aching afterwards. The pain continued for a long time after the injury, is an unfavorable symptom and a reason to seek medical help as it may indicate damage to the internal structures (fracture, the injury to an internal organ hemorrhage, rupture of ligaments, concussion, etc.). The most common remote pain after injury is associated with the formation of a hematoma, compressing nerves, especially when touching or movement of the damaged part of the body.
Symptomatic joint injury is its significant swelling. A symptom of head injury - a severe headache. You need to know that if there was a head injury, loss of consciousness, even if short-term, or the victim can not remember the injury, it is a sign of a concussion. In this case, medical intervention, at least in the diagnosis of the presence of an intracranial hematoma.
If there was a bruised chest, abdomen or belly, injury symptoms can be quite formidable. Such signs of damage to internal organs such as blood in urine, respiratory depression, increased pain, dizziness, in short, all growing, not decreasing symptoms of injury, should be cause for immediate treatment for medical assistance.
The consequences of injury
In most cases, slack, and even severe bruises pass without consequences, and the effects of the injury disappear within two to three weeks. However, there are situations where the consequences of the injury can be quite serious. First and foremost, this concerns the already mentioned head injuries. The fact that the skull - a closed space, and that the hematoma, which elsewhere in the body would be resolved in due course, without causing considerable concern in the skull leads to compression of vital structures of the brain. In this case, the consequence of injury may be neurological disorders of varying severity and localization, severe headache, accompanied by nausea and vomiting, and even death.
One of the consequences of the injury, although quite rare, can be calcification of the hematoma. In this case, the soft tissue remains seal which motion can cause quite considerable morbidity. In some cases, long-term consequences of injury soft tissue of the breast in women and testicles in men may be the development of cancer of these organs.
A serious injury is a consequence of the violation of the integrity of a large vessel. In this case, it may be a significant hemorrhage, and even internal bleeding, formation of thrombus, followed by a severe complication - thromboembolism when a blood clot to the movement of the blood vessel gets smaller diameter and closes it. Thromboembolism may lead to heart attack, stroke, necrosis of the internal organs, and death.
It is also a significant risk are the consequences of injuries of internal organs, such as cardiac contusion, a bruise of the kidneys, liver, spleen. In this case there are a variety of damage, breach of their duties, carrying life-threatening.
Given all the above, do not underestimate the injuries, especially serious.
Help with bruises
Everyone knows how to provide assistance for bruises, but not everyone knows how to assist with bruises correctly. First aid for injury is to inspect the damaged area, if it is finite, then check its function (flexion-extension, other movements). If there are only symptoms of injury, rather than the more serious damage, must be applied to the injured area cold. This causes vasospasm of the microvasculature and helps stop internal bleeding.
Analgesics better not to apply, so as not to miss the deterioration in the case of accession of complications. However, if there is confidence that the injury did not damage the internal organs, can be given painkillers except aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). Aspirin for treating injuries need not be applied since it enhances bleeding.
If there was a strong head injury with loss of consciousness, a strong bruise waist, abdomen, or chest, in addition to applying a cold compress, you must put the victim and call an ambulance, or on their own to deliver the emergency room, trying as much as possible to immobilize the injured spot and observe peace.
We must remember that the cold is effective only within the first thirty minutes. Then you need to help with injury is to provide a place of peace bruised. Two days later after an injury requires gentle heat to the affected area. Applying a warm compress in this period provides blood flow to the site of injury, which speeds up the absorption of hematoma without risk of renewed bleeding.
Treatment of injuries
Treatment of injuries required when the injury occurred considerable force. Injuries of the head, abdomen, waist and chest require hospitalization in the surgical ward, where after the appropriate diagnosis of the decision on further treatment of the injury. In severe cases, surgical treatment of the injury. Access to the damaged area is carried out either by endoscopic means or open large vessels sutured tears, tears of parenchymal organs removed streamed blood. Then drain the wound. Parallel to prescribe anti-inflammatory and pain medications.
Treatment of injury in the regeneration step is to apply tools of physiotherapy in order to accelerate the resorption of hematoma and early recovery of damaged tissues.