Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women.
The incidence of breast cancer is about 10% of the total female population.
Most susceptible to tumor formation women older than 40 years, in very rare cases, breast cancer sick man.
Causes and risk factors for breast cancer
Due svogo widespread, breast cancer is studied more other cancers. Despite the fact that the immediate cause of breast cancer is unknown, rather clearly identified factors that contribute to disease. These factors include:
- Beginning menstruation before the age of twelve;
- Lack of pregnancy and childbirth;
- First pregnancy at the age of thirty years;
- The presence of abortions in history;
- Early termination of lactation after giving birth, or lack thereof;
- Menopause later than fifty years;
- The presence of close relatives with cancer;
- Earlier transferred cancer;
- Endocrine disorders in the body;
- Disease - fibrocystic breast disease;
- Long-term use of hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy during menopause;
- The preceding trauma of breast cancer;
- Meals with a high content of carcinogenic substances (fatty, fried, smoked food, fast food);
- Age older than 40 years.
Each of the above factors lead to breast cancer, but increases the risk of disease, especially when a combination of several of the above factors.
Signs of Breast Cancer
The problem of breast cancer, as well as many other types of cancer is that symptoms frequently become apparent only at the stage of established tumors. The early stages of breast cancer are often asymptomatic. The earliest sign of breast cancer is:
1) Appearance of a single or multiple seals chondroid, from a few millimeters to a few centimeters in diameter;
2) Change the skin area of one of the mammary glands, the skin may acquire a characteristic appearance of orange peel, or be dragged;
3) In some cases, there are discharge from the nipple, is not associated with lactation, usually bloody or rust-reddish color;
4) The nipple flattens out and retracts breast lesions may increase, or vice versa, decrease in size.
For the usual form for symptoms of breast cancer pain is not typical, pain develops only in the terminal stage of the disease. When mastitopodobnoy form breast cancer symptoms are similar to mastitis: breast is red, swells, becomes painful.
The pain is expressed and rozhistopodobnoy form of the disease, in which there are sharply limited by the usual areas of redness of the skin, iron swells, increased body temperature and general condition worsens.
Mastitopodobnaya and erysipelas form of breast cancer are much less typical of cancer, their danger is that signs of breast cancer in this case are not specific for the tumor, and for acute inflammatory process that can be misleading.
Another form of the disease - armored breast cancer. It is characterized by the formation of dense infiltrate, resulting in mammary gland becomes uneven and solid-like shell, which in some cases covers the whole thorax.
It also occurs in cancer of the breast nipple, Paget's disease or cancer, the most rare form of cancer. Symptoms of breast cancer in this case limited to the defeat of the nipple, the symptoms are similar to eczema or psoriasis may appear scales characteristic of psoriasis, or brown on a background of redness characteristic of weeping eczema. When symptoms of breast cancer symptoms do not go beyond the areola, the tumor can spread to both breasts.
Breast cancer metastasizes to the axillary lymph nodes, a sign of metastasis is a seal and an increase in the size of lymph nodes. Paths through the blood tumor may metastasize to the brain, lungs and liver.
Diagnosis of breast cancer
The main method of diagnosis of breast cancer is mammography - breast X-ray in different projections. As an additional method applied ultrasound. The final diagnosis with breast cancer based on a biopsy - a small piece of laboratory analysis of the tumor taken by puncture or scrape (at the surface forms of the disease).
To identify possible metastases conducted MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and or examination of the lungs, liver and brain using medical imaging techniques. To detect bone metastases scintigraphy is performed.
Treatment of breast cancer
Breast cancer treatment complex, which underwent surgical removal of the tumor, cytostatic therapy and radiation of regional lymph nodes. A prerequisite, except for the terminal stages, a delete operation for breast cancer.
There is the classic version of the treatment of breast cancer, which is considered standard for this disease - radical mastectomy. This method completely removes the breast and axillary lymph nodes all on the affected side.
Currently, due to improved methods of diagnosing more and more in the early stages of the disease have resorted to gentle, sparing surgery for breast cancer. Prior to this, conduct a thorough investigation of sentinel lymph node - the first, which receives lymph from the tumor. If the sentinel lymph node metastasis is not present, with a probability of 98% have none at all. In the treatment of breast cancer in this case carried out removal of the tumor itself plus several centimeters to surrounding healthy tissue, the surgical method complementing chemotherapy and irradiation, as with a mastectomy.
In the terminal stages of breast cancer surgery is not effective, and can be used only as a means to alleviate the suffering. The main methods of treating breast cancer in this case are chemotherapy and radiation, it is not about healing, and to extend the life.
Forecast breast cancer
Five-year survival rate in the case when the tumor is detected in an early stage, before the onset of clinical symptoms of breast cancer, is more than 98%. In Step developed clinical picture when applying complex treatment includes radical mastectomy, radiation and chemotherapy nodes - the five-year survival rate of about 60%. In the presence of distant metastases of breast cancer prognosis is poor.