General information about the infection
Botulism - an infectious disease that is caused by anaerobic - sticks botulism. They are widely distributed in nature, can be stored for a long time in the soil in the form of spores. In humans, botulism develops after eating contaminated food - vegetables, fruits, grains, meat and fish. Especially dangerous eating canned food. Without oxygen anaerobes begin not only proliferate but also to allocate a special toxin - one of the strongest bacterial poisons. It does not decompose in the stomach and intestines, and in some cases (for example, a toxin type E) enhances its effect even under the influence of intestinal juice.
The risk of "catch" botulism increases significantly when using canned, salted fish, ham, sausage, mushrooms, pickles and home-prepared with violation of technological process. In particular, without a full heat treatment of food botulism pathogen is able to persist for many years without losing the ability to reproduce.
Currently, researchers are known types 6 anaerobes, and they produce potent specific toxins. The content of botulinum food sticks depends on the concentration of salt and sugar, and the level of acidity of canned products.
Botulism - symptoms
The incubation period lasts from botulism 2-3 hours to 1-2 days. Initial symptoms of botulism:
- general weakness;
- a slight headache;
- persistent constipation, which will not eliminate enemas and laxatives. Diarrhea in botulism is much rarer;
- nausea, vomiting;
- voice changes, blurred vision and difficulty swallowing due to central nervous system.
Patients begin to see all the subjects like "in a fog." People dilate the pupils (with one wider than the other), there is double vision. Very often botulism leads to strabismus and ptosis - drooping of the upper eyelid. In some cases of botulism in humans there is no reaction to light (the phenomenon of accommodation). Subsequently botulinus leads to rapid disease progression with the advent of patients:
- dry mouth;
- changes in heart rate (slow in the beginning, then - very fast);
- lowering blood pressure;
- germination of spores in the intestine of the patient man.
The body temperature of infected botulism remains within the normal range, so the main feature of the disease are focal changes on the part of the eye. Gastrointestinal syndrome (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea) persists for 1-2 days and then replaced by neurological symptoms (disorders of swallowing, dry mouth). Sick botulism experiencing general weakness, noted the presence of "net" before his eyes. When the diagnosis of botulism, symptoms often show many disorders of the digestive function. Patients normally can not swallow food, and paresis of the soft palate liquid foods generally poured through the nose. If botulism is accompanied by paralysis of the muscles of the larynx, the possible development of Athos and other serious complications.
In severe botulism often leads to death due to paralysis of the respiratory muscles. But even with a favorable outcome of treatment for people undergoing botulism, there are such unpleasant effects as muscle weakness, asthenia, neuritis, toxic myocarditis and pneumonia.
Diagnosis of the disease
Accurate diagnosis on the basis of epidemiological data and the characteristic clinical symptoms. Helps identify botulism and laboratory methods (RIGA, bioassays, crops) which are necessary to clarify the type of pathogen and subsequent serotherapy. Remember that when a large dose of toxin (more than 0, 3 mg) is deadly botulism. The prognosis depends on the timing of treatment to the doctor, and the introduction of protivobotulinicheskoy serum.
Botulism - treatment of the disease
When food poisoning are important measures of first aid. Botulism patient must be given saline laxatives, peach, or any other vegetable oil to bind toxins and stomach wash with a solution of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). In addition, if in any doubt botulism treatment involves early introduction protivobotulinicheskoy serum and immediate hospitalization. In the treatment of botulism in a hospital laboratory analyzes performed to determine the type exotoxin, after which experts use monoretseptornye antitoxic serum against a specific type of chemical agent. If you define the type of toxin is not possible, then the polivaletnye serum - a mixture preparator acting immediately on all kinds of anaerobes.
Since the causative agent of botulism affects the vital systems of the body, the patients organized a thorough constant care. According to the testimony they are assigned activities to maintain the physiological functions and the use of respiratory equipment. A FUNDAMENTAL BREACH swallowing advisable to use tube feeding or nutritional enema. As auxiliary agents for the treatment of botulism used chloramphenicol, and adenosine triphosphate (for the first 5 days of treatment).