Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the genitourinary system in men and women met four times less. Most susceptible to bladder cancer people in the age group from 45 to 60 years. Among the reasons emit prolonged contact with aniline dyes and chronic diseases of the bladder - cystitis and papillomatosis. There is also evidence of a direct link of bladder cancer with smoking.
The types and stages of cancer of the bladder
Step bladder cancer differ in the depth of penetration of the tumor tissue in the body. On this basis it decided to allocate two groups of cancer: superficial and invasive. The first group includes bladder carcinoma in situ (in place) and superficial bladder cancer, i.e. located within the mucosa, the second - the muscle layer cancer and bladder cancer sprouting surrounding tissue. More dangerous invasive forms of the disease, which occur more aggressive and more likely to metastasize.
There are the following stages of bladder cancer:
- The tumor is within the bladder mucosa.
- The tumor invades the muscle wall of the bladder
- The tumor invades the fatty tissue and superficial bladder wall.
- The tumor grows into the adjacent organs: the uterus, the vagina in women, prostate in men, the abdominal wall, the pelvic bones.
Symptoms of bladder cancer
Like most malignancies, cancer of the bladder for a long time may be asymptomatic
. It should be noted that the symptoms of bladder cancer are not always depend on the tumor stage
. Sometimes significant step pronounced symptoms of bladder cancer may not be, but at the first appearance you may find that the tumor has reached a considerable size and has metastasized
. The earliest and characteristic symptom of bladder cancer is hematuria, or blood in the urine
. Urine becomes alien to her "rusty" color, or color of meat slops
. This symptom does not necessarily indicate cancer of the bladder, it can be a symptom of another disease, but it is always a sign of a formidable, requiring immediate urological examination
. The second most frequent symptom of bladder cancer is frequent urination
. With the development of the tumor, its disintegration and decay products entering the bloodstream, deteriorating overall health, appears fatigue, loss of appetite, sleep disturbances, cachexia
. When tumor invasion of the bladder wall there is pain while urinating, in advanced stages of bladder cancer pain becomes constant
Diagnosis of bladder cancer
For the diagnosis of bladder cancer are two kinds of research: medical imaging and histological examination of a piece of the tumor for the presence of malignant cells (a biopsy). From medical imaging techniques in this case is the most informative cystoscopy - examination of the bladder endoscope, a thin instrument introduced into the cavity of the body, with its own light source and a camera that transmits the image on the monitor. Cystoscope is also provided with a surgical tool to take a piece of tissue in the area of the bladder tumor for laboratory examination. If you suspect an advanced stage of bladder cancer, conduct an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) to determine metastasis. For detection of metastasis in the bone using
Treatment of bladder cancer
Malignant tumors of the bladder treated with surgical, therapeutic methods, as well as irradiation. Treatment of bladder cancer depends on the stage. The stage in situ and superficial cancers is possible to conduct minimally invasive surgery organoschadyaschey - removal of the tumor endoscopically, this operation is called transurethral resection of the bladder. The third stage is conducted partial resection of the bladder, that is part of the body is removed, affected by the tumor. If the tumor is extensive, cystectomy performed, that is, removes the entire bladder, followed by plasticity - creating a new bladder out of the area of the intestine. Treatment of bladder cancer is carried as with chemotherapy, which is used before or after surgery.
When limb-salvage surgery chemotherapy administered directly into the bladder. In other cases, the treatment of bladder cancer cytostatic drugs are administered intravenously. Radiation therapy in the treatment of bladder cancer is used as prevention of cancer metastasis and recurrence, before or after surgery, it is very important. Its application in combination with cytostatics and reception operation gives the best result. In the fourth stage of the cases of inoperable bladder cancer chemotherapy and radiation are used as the primary method of treatment aimed at alleviating the condition of the patient and reducing pain.
Prediction of bladder cancer
Prediction of bladder cancer depends largely on what stage of malignancy treatment was initiated. Oncologists use the concept the five-year survival rate after treatment. Five-year survival rate in bladder cancer the first and second stages are respectively 88 and 67%. The germination stage wall and surrounding tissues after cystectomy, five-year survival rate is about 50%. At the stage of germination of neighboring organs the prognosis is poor. Also, it worsens the prognosis of bladder cancer metastases, particularly remote.
Prevention of bladder cancer
The basis for the prevention of bladder cancer is the observance of safety precautions when working with aniline dyes and other carcinogens paint production. Timely access to a doctor, adequate treatment of inflammatory diseases, removal of papillomas of the bladder, avoiding harmful habits, including the habit of delaying urination and adequate fluid intake - that prevention of cancer of the bladder that will prevent this terrible disease.