Autism. General characteristics.
Autism is a violation of mental development, which is characterized by such features as: motor skills and speech disorder, stereotypical behavior and activities - all this leads to a shortage of social interaction. It is a neurobiological disorder caused by a violation of hemispheric relations, accompanies a person throughout his life, but the signs of autism manifest themselves in childhood.
Today autism in children is not uncommon - one of 150 children suffering from these mental disorders. According to statistics, autistic disorders occur in all social, ethnic and racial groups, however, are more susceptible to the disease boys than girls. Most often, this disorder is diagnosed in children up to 3 years. In some cases, to recognize autism, the cause of which is still not fully understood, it is possible and at the six-month child.
To date, scientists still can not say with absolute certainty about the causes of autism, since the nature of this disease is complex and unclear. It was found that autistic disorder associated with genes, but what - the interaction of a large number of genes or the influence of rare mutations - became the impetus for the development of autism is unknown.
Since this pathology is often accompanied by damage to the temporal lobes, cerebellum, brainstem, we can say that the causes of autism are not limited to genetic predisposition. The impetus for the development of the disease can give and chromosomal abnormalities, congenital metabolic disorders, organic lesions of the central nervous system.
Symptoms of Autism
The most pronounced symptoms of autism occur in childhood, but softened their shape is observed in adults.
To diagnose autism in children requires a so-called triad:
- lack of social interaction;
- violation of mutual communication;
- limited interests, repetitive behavior, the presence of ritual.
The components of the triad separately can be found in healthy people, but only their combined expression allows us to speak about autism spectrum disorders.
A common symptom of autism is selectivity in the food, but for the diagnosis of the disease it is not essential.
Autism in children can be identified by the following characteristics:
- Poorly developed speech. The child is usually unambiguous understand simple words, calling him to action - "eat", "sit", close the door. " Playing voice is the repetition of words or parts of them, on television or heard from others. Lack abstract reasoning leads to the fact that there is no understanding of the meaning of pronouns such as "my", "your", "her", etc. Problems with speech, as one of the signs of autism become more pronounced in children of the second year of life.
- Behavior typical for people with physiological disturbances. The child behaves in a way that gives the impression that he is deaf or blind - does not respond to speech addressed to him, look no contact with their parents.
- The absence of the parents and the child's close relations emotional. This feature of autism usually manifests itself even in infancy, when the child does not try to pull over to the mother resists physical contact.
- The lack of interest in toys. The child lacks the ability to play with toys, if he shows interest in them, it is very unusual character: spinning wheel inverted machine sucks doll, twisting a piece of rope.
- The inability to communicate and play with their peers. Some people believe that children with autism prefer to be alone games with other children, but this is not always true. In most cases, the lack of communication with peers is due to the inability and unwillingness of the child are not in contact and play.
- Attacks of rage and aggression. Autism in children is often accompanied by bursts of anger which may be directed at themselves and to others. Even at the slightest obstacle or prohibition of the child may react aggressively: beating, scratching, biting.
- Repetitive stereotyped activities. A kind of ritual behavior of the child is one of the symptoms of autism: the whole body sways from side to side, rotate objects, claps his hands, staring at the light or rotating objects, spinning in one place, squats and jumps in one place for a long time.
The symptoms of autism that can be noticed in the first year of life:
- unusual gestures;
- Late babble;
- poor response to communication;
- unharmonized to exchange sounds with adults.
In many cases, autism is accompanied by a number of physiological problems are manifested in the form:
- inability to cleanse the body of heavy metals;
- leaky gut syndrome;
- incomplete digestion glyuteina and casein;
- neurological changes;
- deficiency of chromium, selenium, zinc, magnesium, and vitamins A, C, E, B6, B12, folic acid and nicotinic.
Treatment of Autism
The most commonly for the treatment of autism resort to behavioral therapy, based on the remuneration of right conduct. In the case of this therapy at an early stage of the disease is possible to teach children how to take care of themselves and communicate with others. Autism Treatment may include physical and speech therapy, depending on the individual characteristics of the child. Such symptoms of autism as obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression, generally involve the use of drugs.
Family therapy in the treatment of autism is crucial because parents and relatives can provide a child a great help in the process of adaptation to the external world. Parents caring for a child with autism, you should carefully plan breaks during the day, it will save the physical and moral strength needed to take care of this baby. When the child grows up, it is recommended to seek assistance from others as to cope with this problem is difficult. It is also very important communication and mutual aid among families in which the same are growing especially the children.
Effective treatment of autism is based on skilled care physicians and the most adapted to the needs of the behavior of the parents of the child.