Aphasia - a systemic disorder that is characterized by loss of the ability to speak, which is due to damage to the speech areas of the brain.
The forms of aphasia: causes and symptoms of the disease
According to the classification Luria can distinguish different forms of aphasia:
- Efferent motor aphasia (Broca's aphasia otherwise - on behalf of the doctor, who described the symptoms of the disease) occurs against the backdrop of the defeat of the lower divisions of the premotor cortex of the left hemisphere of the brain. Motor aphasia characterizes telegraphic style statements (the collapse of grammar), as well as difficulties in switching from one word or phrase to another. Another characteristic symptoms of motor aphasia are disorders of reading and writing;
- To display dynamic aphasia characterized by the inability to build an internal program statements (the decay of inner speech). This disorder causes damage to the prefrontal region of the left hemisphere;
- The basis of sensory aphasia (Wernicke's aphasia otherwise) is the cortical lesion of the auditory analyzer. When sensory aphasia patient loses the ability to interpret the heard speech;
- To the development of afferent motor aphasia causes loss of parietal and posterior-central regions of the cortex. Thus, patients with aphasia experience difficulty due to the inability to distinguish the close articulation of the sounds picked up due to incorrect articulation posture that leads to mixing articulemes within the group;
- Optical-amnestic aphasia characterizes the weakness of words and visual images of the visual memory. Patients with aphasia have difficulty naming words;
- Acoustic-amnestic aphasia causes narrowing of the scope of verbal memory and disruption volume retention audioverbal information;
- Amnesic aphasia cause destruction parietal-temporal region, and the main difficulty is the naming of familiar objects;
- Semantic aphasia is characterized by defects in simultaneous synthesis and speech analysis, as well as violation of the understanding of the complex logical-grammatical constructions that describe spatial relationships.
A simplified classification of the forms of aphasia can be summarized as:
- Motor when a patient with aphasia understand it, but can not speak;
- Sensor when the patient does not understand the meaning of words, but can say phrases and words.
Common feature of patients with aphasia is a poverty of speech, in which they rarely use adverbs, adjectives, descriptive momentum, and they practically do not use proverbs and sayings.
Causes of aphasia
The main causes of aphasia include:
- Traumatic brain injury;
- Infectious diseases of the brain;
- Brain tumors.
Diagnosis of aphasia
To identify motor and sensory aphasia study using oral and written language. Diagnostic methods include the study of:
- Reading ability and reading comprehension;
- Speaking, story, repetition and automatic speech, including month, day, poetry;
- Understanding speech;
- Writing, including the copying, dictation and retelling;
- Grammatical structure, wealth or poverty of speech.
Also one of the important diagnostic factor is the willingness of the patient to talk aphasia.
The treatment of aphasia
Treatment of the disease, as well as restoration of speech in aphasia therapy is the main disease that led to these violations.
In cases where the cause of the deterioration of the speech was a trauma or a stroke, in the restoration of speech therapists to help physicians. Generally, this treatment starts after the stabilization of the physical condition of the person.
Sometimes, a full recovery of speech in aphasia occurs even without treatment, which is typical for conditions caused by short-term disruption of the flow of blood to the brain.