Brief description of the disease
Anthrax is classified as infectious diseases from the group of zoonoses. It is characterized by lesions of the lymphatic system, fever, intoxication. In most cases anthrax occurs in the form of skin, much less - in the lung, intestinal and septic. In Western literature anthrax has another name - Ugljevik (anthrax), which she received for the appearance of characteristic ulcerations and black patina covering the sores on the body.
Anthrax are regularly found in Africa, Asia, Latin and South America. On the territory of the Russian anthrax often manifests itself in the Stavropol Territory, the Belgorod, Kursk, Voronezh, Rostov and Kirov regions, Tatarstan and Chechnya, that is, in regions with developed livestock industry. A person infected either directly from the animal itself or from its skin and coat.
Note also that since the mid-20th century, the number of cases of anthrax is constantly decreasing. Important role in the positive dynamics of the play correctly prevention of anthrax and the tightening of hygiene requirements in enterprises engaged in breeding cattle. Every year in our country celebrated 50 cases of anthrax infection and almost all of them are professional in nature, as it is often sick people who work with animals. And another important point: those enterprises which use a special vaccine, anthrax detected extremely rare, which again tells us about the importance of the development of modern drugs against dangerous infections.
Anthrax begins to develop as a result of the activities of aerobic bacillus. This fixed, but rather large microorganism has chopped off the edge and can remain for a long time outside the body of the wearer. As sources of infection are the sheep, goats, cattle and pigs. Typically, anthrax in humans appear after direct skin contact with animals during butchering or working hides, however, the disease can be brought, and by eating contaminated food or water.
Symptoms of anthrax and clinical picture
Symptoms of anthrax occur in the period from 2 to 14 days. In most cases, the infection affects the skin of the person, so the first symptoms of anthrax can see it in the open areas of the body. The clinical picture of anthrax as follows:
- first on the skin appear small spots that look like insect bites, and quite itch;
- within 2-3 days the skin near the site of pathogen penetration significantly compacted. Itching in this period increases and often becomes severe burning. Sami spots also transformed and transformed into vesicles, filled with blood and serous contents;
- to the extent that, as patients combed itchy place on the skin surface formed black sores. From this point quite clearly can be established that a person is developing anthrax, symptoms of which are characterized not only by the appearance formations on the skin, but also a rise in temperature, eating disorders, and headache;
- after opening the vesicles edge sores start to swell up and form a swelling. It spreads very quickly by grabbing the healthy areas and contributing to the formation of secondary bubbles. This process lasts for 5-6 days;
- reaching a size of 8-15 mm, anthrax acquires the characteristics of a carbuncle: black center, festering border around it, red oval in place of secondary lesions.
If the diagnosis of anthrax was delivered on time and the patient was appointed adequate treatment, 5-6 days after the onset of the patient's condition carbuncles normal: it decreases the temperature decreases swelling and lymphangitis fading improves overall health. Sores on the skin heal slowly, however, after them remains well perceptible scar. If anthrax in humans occurs with complications, it may develop secondary sepsis, a sharp rise in body temperature, increase in tachycardia and increased headaches. Secondary pustules formed in the absence of treatment, contribute to improper operation of vital systems that can lead to death.
In addition to skin lesions, anthrax and affects other organs. Symptoms of intestinal anthrax forms are characterized by a strong toxicosis disease, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and vomiting. If you do not take action, the patient dies of heart failure increasing in 4-5 days after the first signs of the disease. Pulmonary anthrax, symptoms which indicate the defeat of the respiratory system, is developing even faster. In all patients have signs of severe intoxication, which leads to death already at 2-3 days after the start refuse lungs.
Treatment of anthrax and forecasts recovery
Regardless of the form of the infection, the treatment of anthrax includes receiving a specific binding globulin and antibiotics. Due to antibiotic treatment fails to reduce the number of deaths from skin anthrax to 10-20%. In the case of inhalational things quite differently. Anthrax is developing too fast and often leads to critical changes long before they would be correctly diagnosed. Intestinal anthrax in humans is completely cured in 50% of reported cases. The remaining patients either die or become disabled.
Prevention of anthrax
Anthrax Prevention plays an important role in the prevention of infection and reduce the number of deaths. If a man make a vaccine, anthrax occurs much easier and never fatal. In addition to vaccination, you need time to identify sick animals, completely destroying their meat and skin, to disinfect equipment and tools with which they are in contact.
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