General characteristics of the disease
Tracheobronchitis - is an inflammatory process in the bronchi, trachea or bronchial tubes. The disease is characterized by the rapid spread of a lesion of the mucous membrane. In most cases, tracheobronchitis being treated literate, qualified, completely disappears within a few weeks, after which the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract is restored.
There are acute, allergic and chronic bronchitis. The acute form is rarely an independent disease. Most often it follows one of the clinical stages of acute respiratory infections, measles, whooping cough, acute pneumonia or typhoid.
As regards the sources of infection, the bronchitis is caused by infection with the airborne, bronchogenic or hematogenous route.
Acute bronchitis is a diffuse inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and other upper respiratory tract. Among the main causes of disease it is worth noting the factors that reduce the body's resistance to the effects of aggressive environment and agents of respiratory diseases. The most common acute bronchitis is caused by viruses and bacteria: staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci. Also, the disease appears after hypothermia, excessive smoking, alcohol consumption, deformations of the nasal cavity and chest.
If a person is diagnosed acute bronchitis, treatment should be carried out as quickly as possible. Otherwise, the patient waiting for the numerous complications such as bronchial obstruction, flushing, severe tissue bronchial walls.
Symptoms of acute bronchitis:
- soreness in the chest;
- dry, hysterical cough;
- dry wheezing and breathing hard;
- shortness of breath;
- severe pain in the lower chest, which explains the muscle tension as a result of persistent cough;
- in severe forms of the disease can be released mucopurulent or purulent sputum;
- increase in temperature, which is kept at a high level for several days.
In the case of lesions of the bronchial tubes, acute bronchitis in children and adults with severe complications occurs, often progressing into chronic bronchitis.
If the patient has a painful cough with mucous and bloody sputum and shortness of breath, reaching to suffocation, then quite likely to be diagnosed at a toxic-chemical bronchitis. The symptoms are similar to symptoms of other diseases of the upper respiratory tract, so the examination of the patient includes the X-ray diagnostics and blood.
Allergic bronchitis, treatment which should be done only after the elimination of the disease is characterized by acute inflammatory upper respiratory tract infections. Pathogens are pneumococci, staphylococci, streptococci and other microorganisms. In addition, the emergence and development of the disease is influenced by respiratory factors: the defeat of industrial or chemical warfare agents, as well as certain medications (potassium bromide, potassium iodide).
Allergic bronchitis - symptoms of the disease:
- burning pain behind the breastbone;
- dry cough, sometimes accompanied by phlegm mucous character;
- the general deterioration of the human condition - weakness, lethargy, loss of appetite;
- fever, although in most cases it is quite small;
- the emergence and development of focal pneumonia.
In the absence of timely treatment of the acute form of the disease or allergic spill over into chronic bronchitis. Treatment of patients spent against periods of relapse and remission may be complicated by the development of opportunistic diseases, particularly chronic bronchitis.
Chronic bronchitis manifests hypertrophic and atrophic changes in the mucous membrane of the trachea, abundant cough for at least 3 months of the year, the release of serous-purulent sputum, persistent pain in the chest.
Bronchitis in children
As we know, children often suffer from SARS. One of the complications of infection is bronchitis. Contributing factors of the disease are also: stagnation in the vessels of the lungs, rickets, immune deficiencies, malnutrition, reduced the protective properties of the tonsils.
Bronchitis in children should be distinguished from viral laryngitis, and upper respiratory tract lesions. The most common symptoms of the disease - it attacks of dry cough (especially at night), the presence of dry and unsaturated wheezing when listening to, short-term fever and general deterioration of the child.
Bronchitis - Treatment and prognosis
In the acute form is necessary several times a day to ventilate the room to prevent the overheating of the patient. In the event that acute bronchitis occurs with complications, patients received antibiotics (oxacillin, penicillin, methicillin). The most effective drugs are released in the form of a spray, because they can easily penetrate into remote areas of the upper respiratory tract and distributed throughout the area of the walls of the trachea or bronchi.
Severe illness involves the rejection of antibiotics to sulfa drugs. Their dosage depends on the age and weight of the patient. Typically, the treatment lasts for not more than 6-7 days. It is also recommended to use inhaled epinephrine 1-2 times a day.
In some cases bronchitis leads to circulatory disorders. In such situations the patient is shown intravenous strophanthin, glucose solution or other cardiac agents. If bronchitis in children occurs with disorders of the respiratory rhythm or sleep apnea, they prescribed tsititon and lobelia. Medications are administered intravenously.
In severe forms of the disease patients showed oxygen therapy. To carry out this procedure using special equipment, which at regular intervals introduces oxygen into the patient. In the case of hyperthermia in addition to the patient is prescribed a 1% solution amidopirina or chlorpromazine. Acceptable use of antihistamines. Infants sometimes prescribed hydrochlorothiazide in order to dehydration. Some positive effect arises from taking vitamins, especially ascorbic acid and B vitamins
What if a person is diagnosed allergic bronchitis? Treatment in this case is performed using expectorants, alkaline inhalation, antihistamines, physical therapy, warm foot baths and traditional medicine.
In allergic bronchitis and acute projections are generally favorable. The chronic form of the disease requires an integrated approach and the effectiveness of treatment depends on the degree of internal organ involvement, the duration of the disease and other factors.