Acquired heart valvular disease
Brief description of the disease
Acquired heart disease - damage to the heart valves, developing, unlike congenital, during the life of the patient, often in adulthood.
Acquired heart disease develops most often due to rheumatism, atherosclerosis, infectious endocarditis. Less often - because of injuries, connective tissue diseases (dermatomyositis, scleroderma, spondylitis disease), syphilis, degenerative pathologies of the valves of the heart with the inclusion of lime salts.
Development of the disease is as follows: in the wings valve begins the inflammatory process that affects them, destroys and causes scarring. Because of the disruption of the heart valve begins to work with the excessive load, there is a thickening of the heart department. Thereafter, the heart cavity expands reduced contractility of the heart muscle, symptoms of cardiac insufficiency.
There are compensated and decompensated defect. If the defect is not accompanied by signs of lack of blood flow, it is considered compensated if such signs appear - decompensated.
Symptoms of acquired heart disease
Symptoms of acquired heart disease vary depending on the type of disease.
When mitral stenosis is expanding the left atrium, and there in the veins that flow into it, the pressure decreases. The patient appears shortness of breath, which is under a load of complicated hemoptysis and cough. In more complex cases, it may start an attack of cardiac asthma and pulmonary edema. The complexion of the patient - a pinkish, he observed palpitations, disruption of the heart. Also known symptoms of acquired defect of this kind: epigastric pain, swelling of the extremities, pain in the right upper quadrant.
When mitral valve blood when left ventricular contraction again partially enters the left atrium. The patient complains of shortness of breath, weakness, palpitations. The basis of a symptom of acquired heart disease - systolic sound of nature in the apex of the heart, myocardial hypertrophy is also noted to the left and upward.
In case of insufficiency of the aortic valve is not complete closure of the aortic valve during diastole, so the blood returns to the left ventricle. Complaints patient: palpitations, prolonged pain during exercise, shortness of breath.
Typical symptoms of this type of defect heart disease - pale, pulsation in the arteries in the neck. Apical impulse of the heart is shifted to the left and down.
Diagnosis of the disease
On examination, the doctor, after listening to the complaints of the patient, measuring the pulse, blood pressure, listens to the heart. If there is a suspicion of occurrence of heart disease, the patient is prescribed to undergo additional screening.
To determine the acquired vice conduct X-ray examination - so assess the condition of the lungs, the size of the heart and its chambers.
The electrocardiogram is useful for diagnosis of heart rhythm and rate.
According to the study echocardiogram of the heart valves work, know the size of the heart chambers, receive data on the thickness and the work of the heart muscle.
You can also carry out catheterization and angiogram - so determine the pressure in the heart chambers, blood volume, evaluate the heart's ability to pump blood, the work of its valves and arterial patency
Treatment of acquired heart disease
Treatment of acquired heart disease is to ensure that the patient is chosen and the image mode of life, which would correspond to the state of the circulatory system to the extent that heart disease.
Because medications can on the physical level to correct violations, leading to heart disease, no treatment of acquired heart disease in most cases, surgical. If possible, the patient surgically corrects the detected defect: spend valvotomy (incision made fused svorok heart valves) or valvuloplasty (reduced operation of the valve). If the valve is damaged so that it restores it is not possible to change it. Valves made from synthetic or biological materials.
Medication is prescribed only blemish acquired in order to stabilize the heart rhythm, to cure and prevent heart failure, complications, and recurrence of the underlying disease causing heart disease.
Prevention of disease
For the prevention of acquired heart disease are treated, which can cause damage to the heart valves.
The most common acquired valvular arises because of rheumatism, so it is important to quickly identify and eliminate the streptococcal infection.
Often, patients with rheumatism appoint more prevention bitsillinom (long-acting antibiotic): the drug is administered on a monthly basis throughout the year. Moreover, if there is suspicion of heart disease, such a patient shows continuous monitoring by a cardiologist.