Brief description of the disease
The rabies virus enters the body after the bite of an infected wild or domestic animals. Infection occurs through contact with saliva medium on the damaged skin or mucous membranes. The incubation period of rabies virus from 2 weeks to 2 months. In some cases, this period is increased to one year. When dealing with a sick person should observe basic care, as after infection in his saliva also contains the rabies virus.
Hazards include bites (multiple and severe), and any damage to the neck, arms, head and face. Moreover, in direct contact with the carrier rabies virus can penetrate through even small blood fresh scratches, open wounds, abrasions, mucous membranes of the eyes and mouth. Bites in the head and face the risk of getting the virus is 90%, injuries of hands - 63%, legs - 23%. However, these statistics have no value for the common people. Remember that every bite should be seen as a potential source of the deadly disease. At the same time it does not matter who it is you are bitten, because, picking up rabies, the nicest little dog can turn into a vicious, uncontrolled creation.
Rabies - symptoms
Once in the human rabies virus begins to multiply rapidly. During this process, the symptoms of rabies are pronounced in 3 phases:
- prodromal - there are first signs of rabies in places bites: itching, pain, swelling and redness of the scar. In addition, a person begins to feel a general malaise, headache, shortness of breath. It temperature rises, and there are problems with the ingestion of food. Perhaps the appearance of symptoms indicative of CNS disorders (nightmares, insomnia, irrational fear);
- encephalitis - during the excitation occurs 2-3 days after the first symptoms. This phase is characterized by the development of painful spasms of muscles of the body, it provokes a variety of factors (noise, bright light, stale air). Patients become aggressive. They scream, tearing their clothing, break furniture and other home furnishings. Between attacks may cause auditory and visual hallucinations, incoherent ravings. In this state, a person is very dangerous because it has detected abnormal "mad" force. Along with the above symptoms, rabies in humans leads to severe tachycardia, excessive sweating and excessive salivation strong. A characteristic feature is the foam from his mouth;
- the final phase - the rabies virus causes paralysis of the limbs and the defeat of the cranial nerves, but agitation weakens. The patient becomes more relaxed, can eat and drink on their own, less suffering from cramps and spasms. But this is only the appearance of the normalization of the state, because after 10-20 hours the person will inevitably die of heart failure or paralysis of the respiratory center. Death comes suddenly, without agony.
Of particular note one important fact: rabies, the symptoms which indicate the occurrence of the third phase, the victim does not leave any chance for life. Do not forget that the rabies virus - deadly, and if left untreated it with 100% likely to result in death. For this reason, a doctor should be treated, not when the first signs of rabies, and immediately after bites and other injuries related to the attacks of animals. This is especially important against the background of the fact that in some cases, patients develop a so-called dumb rabies, which has no pronounced symptoms of arousal. In this scenario, signs of rabies person does not feel much change the overall status and believes that nothing happened. The fallacy of inaction becomes clear only after the first paralysis when saving the patient's life is no longer possible.
How is rabies in humans?
Once again, we note that any animal bite should be considered as a potential source of infection by rabies virus. Accordingly, the victim should consult a doctor and undergo treatment. Antiviral vaccination against rabies made at the emergency station. In our country this is used for the preparation of Coca. The vaccine administered intramuscularly at 0, 3, 7, 14, 30 and 90 days after the bite. If the injury was caused by the accident, for example, while playing a familiar pet, the treatment can be stopped after 10-15 days in the absence of signs of rabies in an animal.
Multiple injuries and bites, even in the absence of signs of rabies, require the use of rabies immunoglobulin. It is used in conjunction with vaccination in the first hours after the injury. It is also very important to treat the wound. It was washed with warm water and a disinfecting composition. The edges of the wound sites wiped with alcohol or 5% iodine tincture. In addition, a patient is administered tetanus toxoid.