General information about the disease
Foot and mouth disease - a disease that affects cattle, goats, pigs, camels, yaks, deer. This viral disease is most common in countries where the population is engaged mainly in agriculture.
There are cases where FMD and other ill pets: cats, dogs, horses, wild boars and even some species of birds (tics, for example) and rodents (rats, squirrels, mice). The causative agent of foot and mouth disease in the infected animal is released together with the milk, urine, feces, feces, saliva, and the transmission of the disease occurs when they have direct contact in their places of detention, on pasture or watering.
FMD infected person can only from animals, contact with them and by eating contaminated dairy products in their raw form. When pasteurization and boiling milk (basic methods of prevention of FMD) FMD pathogen dies. Statistics of contracting the infection is about the person: 65% of cases of FMD infection through the consumption of raw milk, 1% - the use of other dairy products: yogurt, kefir, butter, whey made from raw milk, and finally, 34% of virus infection Foot and Mouth Disease in humans occurs through contact with sick animals. In the latter case, the carriers of the disease can serve as litter, drinkers, feed, water, manure, even clothes farm workers. It was also found that the wool infected animal is contagious for at least another month.
Cow, goat, camel milk contagious even before outward signs of foot and mouth disease (ulcers in the mucosa), and remain so for another 12 days. At the same time, it established a quarantine, during which particular attention is paid to the prevention of foot and mouth disease.
FMD virus in a human parasite on the lining of the nose, mouth, nails and in between the toes.
The clinical picture and symptoms of foot and mouth disease
FMD is introduced into a human oral mucosa, and (or) the upper respiratory tract. In these places there are bubbles are destroyed at the expiration of the incubation period (three to eight days), whereby the FMD virus in the blood falls. At this stage the formation of secondary lesions on mucous lips, nose, throat, mouth, cheeks, tongue.
Following comes the septic stage of FMD, which is characterized by high temperature (up to 40 °) and a appearance of bubbles on the skin (between the fingers and around the nails). Because blood vessels FMD virus gets into the internal organs and is excreted in the feces, urine, saliva, bile.
The general condition of the patient's foot and mouth disease at the beginning of the heavy - fever, weakness, chills, low blood pressure, headache, and quickens the pulse. All this happens in the first two days of illness, and most vividly and painfully expressed symptoms of FMD in the first day: a person painful mucous membranes of the nose, tongue, mouth, he may feel a burning sensation in the mouth, muscle testing and lumbar pain. Also, there is excessive salivation, swollen and redden buccal mucosa, tongue, lips, temples and soft palate. There are also cases when a patient among the usual symptoms of FMD observed slight upset stomach, cramps while urinating.
At the initial stage of the disease in the mouth, nose, throat, cheeks, tongue patient FMD lesions appear and keep an average week, after which, in one or two days at the site of bubbles formed small ones, gradually merging into a single lesion. Very often ulcers appear in the language of the patient, so that it is difficult to swallow and talk. And lips swell, they are also covered by sores and scabs.
Once there are signs of FMD, the secondary rash (skin on the hands and around nails) takes another three to five days, and the patient's temperature begins to drop, comes back to normal, and he begins to recover. The recovery period usually lasts no more than 15 days. After suffering FMD in humans are immune to the disease.
Treatment of foot and mouth disease
The patient was hospitalized for FMD certainly no less than two weeks. Especially important is bed rest for the initial acute course of the disease. Ill FMD appointed sparing diet with abundant drinking and feeding several times a day in small portions or semi-liquid food that is easily digestible. There are also frequent cases of tube feeding. Before the meal, the patient FMD give benzocaine (0, 1 g).
Treatment of foot and mouth disease is carried out using antiviral drugs that are administered in the first days of the disease. This washing local 1% potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide or sodium rivanol and superimposition of ointments, for example, oxolinic, florenalevoy, tebrofenovoy, riodoksolevoy, interferon.
For more intense healing ulcers may apply ultraviolet irradiation, aerosols "Livian" "Vinizol", "Panthenol".
In a particularly severe course of FMD in humans prescribed painkillers, antihistamines, cardiovascular drugs, vitamins, detoxification is carried out of the event.
Particular attention throughout the treatment given to the FMD oral health of the patient.
Prevention of FMD
FMD is the strict observance of the sanitary measures and personal safety in the care of infected animals. Be sure to boil, pasteurized milk imported from dysfunctional, FMD epidemic-prone areas. You can not drink raw milk, dairy products, meat from an unknown, unproven products bought on spontaneous market.
According to many doctors, the prevention of foot and mouth disease is no better than the education of farm workers and the public disclosure of statistics on the disease FMD due to violation of basic sanitary and quarantine rules.