Bruising of the brain related to severe traumatic injuries with characteristic focal brain disorders. The obligatory symptom of brain injury is a loss of consciousness. Depending on the severity of the injury, the injured person may be unconscious for a short time (a few minutes) or a sufficiently long (several days or even weeks).
Area localization injury a bruise of the brain can be located not only in the immediate site of injury, but also with his opposite hand, when the brain receives counterweight hitting the bone's own skull.
The effects of brain injury is very heavy and not always predictable. As one of the many poor prognosis, the next possible option - the emergence of serious circulatory disorders of character, increasing the pressure of cerebrospinal fluid, the rapid development of cerebral edema.
There are cases when a brain contusion accompanied subarachnoid hemorrhage. This critical situation is dangerous because the blood breakdown products (in particular - bilirubin) in the absence of immediate medical care almost inevitably sets in motion aseptic inflammation of the meninges. The medical term for this state of the patient is described as low-grade fever or meningeal syndrome.
The severity of a patient with a brain injury and the possible consequences for their health most accurately determined by specialists in a medical hospital after appropriate tests and analyzes. Objective assessment of the victim, the forecasts for its successful recovery depend largely on the type of brain injury and the overall clinical picture.
Types of brain injury
Experts classify brain contusion in accordance with the following degrees of severity:
- Mild. Diagnosed in about 15 percent of all victims of traumatic brain injury. After a brain contusion mild victim loses consciousness for a short time (from several minutes to several hours). Symptoms of retrograde and anterograde amnesia kongradnoy. You may experience multiple or single vomiting. In some cases, moderately impaired cardiac and respiratory rate, increased blood pressure.
In most cases, mild symptoms are neurological in a couple of weeks, and the patient's health is completely restored.
Brain injury in a child mild cases are quite common in pediatric practice, since because of their age young children often fall, hitting his head on it.
- Average degree. Diagnosed in about 10 percent of all victims of traumatic brain injury. After a brain injury of moderate severity victim may stay unconscious for up to seven hours. There are some minor violations of vital functions. Increased body temperature, impaired visual function and so on. Often, brain contusion moderate combined with subarachnoid hemorrhage, a broken roof and base of the skull.
- Severe. Diagnosed in about 7 percent of all victims of traumatic brain injury. For those affected by brain injury severe characterized by a long stay in a coma. Coma accompanied by asymmetrical or symmetrical decerebration (disabling brain functions). There are substantial violations of the frequency and rhythm of breathing, heart activity, hyperhidrosis (severe sweating), high blood pressure, body temperature and other symptoms.
Symptoms brain contusion
The following symptoms of brain injury, depending on the severity of the injury:
- loss of consciousness;
- Retrograde amnesia;
- Headache or dizziness;
- Loss of coordination;
- nausea, vomiting;
- Altered consciousness;
- Violation of visual functions (temporary blindness, photophobia, diplopia);
- Dilated pupils;
- Violation of the speech;
- Violation of auditory function;
- Violation of the swallowing reflex;
- Decrease in heart rate;
- Slight and rare breathing;
- High blood pressure;
- The loss of sensitivity of some parts of the body;
- The loss of control over the functions of urination and defecation;
- Bleeding (or without blood) discharge from the nasal passages and ear;
Diagnosis of brain contusion
As with any traumatic brain injury to avoid the prolonged negative consequences of a brain injury suffered shown immediately conduct a thorough medical examination with the use of all necessary diagnostic tools.
Before the actual start of the treatment of brain injury, medical staff evaluates the state of the cardiovascular and respiratory system affected. Then, a general examination of the patient's body for signs of injury combined with traumatic brain injuries.
The next step must assess the general condition and the likely symptoms of brain injury becomes a neurological examination, including determination of the reaction of the affected pupils to light stimulus, diagnostics on the Glasgow coma scale, and so on. D.
The most indispensable diagnostic tool for suspected head injury today is computer tomography. This type of survey allows the most reliably determine the presence of tiny hemorrhages in the brain and bruising and possible skull fracture. Magnetic resonance imaging is also quite effective in the diagnosis of brain injuries, but in practice it is used much less frequently, t. To. To prepare for this procedure requires considerable time.
Treatment of brain contusion
Existing treatments for brain injuries are classified into medical and surgical.
Therapeutic treatments for brain injuries are to the elimination of drug increased intracranial hypertension. In addition, preventive measures are mandatory, warning possible occurrence of cerebral edema.
The urgency of neurosurgical treatment of brain injuries dictated by the need to address urgently the physical factors that cause compression of the brain tissue. Hemorrhages, hematomas and bone fragments in the cranial cavity, which can not be eliminated with the help of drugs, removed during surgery - osteoplastic trepanation.