Brief description of the disease
Hearing loss - a disease that is characterized by a decrease in hearing, so that the perception of the conversation becomes difficult. Most hearing loss is even in childhood. Congenital hearing loss suffer from a newborn to 1000. In general, from 2 to 3% of the population has this problem.
Causes of hearing loss
The main cause of hearing loss in children are inflammatory diseases of the middle ear (mainly acute and chronic otitis media). Hearing loss is caused by scarring, perforation and adhesions in the eardrum. Infectious diseases such as influenza, measles can lead to pathological changes in the inner ear and the auditory nerve, which leads to a sharp decrease in hearing. Sometimes hearing loss is congenital. Such a hearing loss can negatively affect speech development of a child.
In adults, hearing loss due to otosclerosis occurs after the use of certain medicines, due to noise and vibration in the workplace, in case of poisoning by industrial and household poisons. Also hearing loss may occur against a background of atherosclerosis, since the disease is disturbed blood supply to the inner ear. There is such a thing as senile deafness when hearing loss is caused by age-related changes in the inner ear and the auditory nerve.
Degrees of hearing loss
There are three degrees of hearing loss.
In mild hearing loss (first degree) the patient distinguishes whispered conversation at a distance of 1 to 3 meters, and the spoken language at a distance of more than 4 meters. The patient can not adequately perceive the conversation when much noise or distortion of speech.
Deafness 2 degrees (the average hearing loss) occurs when the patient perceives the whispered speech at a distance of less than one meter, and the spoken language heard at a distance of 2 to 4 meters. Deafness is characterized by 2 degrees indiscriminate perception of all words in a normal environment, require repeated repetition of certain phrases or single words.
Severe hearing loss (3 degree) is shown in the inability to distinguish between a whisper even at very close range, the patient hears the spoken language at a distance of less than 2 meters. This degree of hearing loss implies the existence of some difficulties in communication. The patient has to resort to the help of a hearing aid to be able to communicate normally with others.
Types of hearing loss
There are sensorineural hearing loss and conductive hearing loss.
Conductive hearing loss develops due to otitis media, adenoid, otosclerosis, pathological changes and dysfunction of the Eustachian tube. This type of hearing loss is characterized by changes in the eardrum and auditory ossicles.
Sensorineural hearing loss - developing due to damage to the nerve cells in the inner ear, auditory nerve and central auditory system. Causes of sensorineural hearing loss can be infectious diseases, stress, trauma of the inner ear, vascular disorders (atherosclerosis, hypertension), the negative effects of certain drugs and chemicals. The main symptoms of sensorineural hearing loss is a hearing loss in conjunction with tinnitus, headache. Sometimes there may be vomiting or nausea.
Diagnosis of hearing loss
For diagnosis using speech audiometry, which is the recognition of the patient whisper and speaking. Based on this research method can determine the degree of hearing loss.
More accurately determine the presence and degree of hearing loss, you can use the tone audiometry - a hearing test tones on the voice range. It is also possible diagnosis of hearing loss using tuning forks. Especially their use is justified, if necessary, the diagnosis at home, although this method is used in clinics.
Hearing loss in children
The main factors that can trigger the appearance of hearing loss in children are infectious or viral diseases of mothers during pregnancy when there is a formation of hearing. Also, the development of the disease can cause infectious diseases early childhood. Playing the role of hereditary factors.
About 50% of children whose parents suffer from this disease, have congenital deafness. The causes of disease in children can be birth defects, premature birth, asphyxia, strong toxemia during pregnancy, alcohol intoxication or other harmful substances during pregnancy.
Diagnosis of the disease at an early age is difficult, because the child can not be said about his auditory sensation. It is important to identify the problem as early as possible to avoid missing the development of school-age children. Therefore, hearing tests in children using a special device. He makes sounds of a certain frequency, and the reaction of the child is fixed. Even the parents are watching the child to assess his hearing ability. You need to know the basic rules of the development of children. At the age of one month baby winces or freezes when a loud sound in the four months turns his head to the side, where the sound is heard, there Gulen, which goes to talk, aged 8 to 10 months begins to utter new sounds. If at any stage of the development of a child's actions are not correct, you need to show the child the doctor for a hearing test.
Treatment of hearing loss
Treatment of hearing loss depends on the type of disease.
When conductive hearing loss only treatment is surgery. If contraindications to surgery possible hearing aid.
Sensorineural hearing loss amenable to conservative treatment. Apply medications that improve blood circulation in the inner ear (piracetam, cerebrolysin etc.). Treatment of hearing loss involves the administration of drugs, to get rid of vertigo (betahistine). It is also used physical therapy and reflexology. In chronic sensorineural hearing loss use hearing aids.