Tourette's syndrome - the neuro-psychiatric disorder in which a person commits involuntary movements or makes involuntary sounds, recognizing their actions, but without being able to control them. Involuntary movements, in this case called tics.
Tourette's syndrome is quite common, at 0, 05% of the population. The most frequently seen Tourette's syndrome in children aged 2 to 5 years following a peak in adolescence, from 13 to 17-18 years.
Boys ill Tourette syndrome three times more often than girls.
Causes of Tourette's syndrome
Doctors believe that the main cause of Tourette's Syndrome - a genetic predisposition. This is confirmed by the fact that in most cases, neurological or other diseases involving tics occur in first- and second-line patient. Tourette's syndrome may also develop after administration of some kinds of drugs, such as neuroleptics. Some experts consider as a possible cause of the disease autoimmune processes, but so far the evidence of such a theory does not exist.
The clinical picture of Tourette's syndrome
As a rule, it appears the first signs of Tourette's syndrome in children at an early age, and after two to five years. Parents pay attention to strange behavior: twitching, compulsive, repetitive motion. This can be grimacing, winking, twitching, claps his hands, bouncing, frequent blinking, even blows to the face and body. Sometimes, Tourette's syndrome manifests itself as recurring uttering different sounds: groaning, rumbling, gurgling, multiple repetitions of the same words and phrases, echolalia - repeating for someone phrases at an older age may appear coprolalia - shouting expletives. Man is aware of his actions in this case, and evaluates them as abnormal, but can not control.
Typically, patients with Tourette's syndrome feel the approach of teak, and can sometimes postpone it, but not completely suppress. Such uncontrolled actions made in the Middle Ages to believe that the person was possessed by the devil, because the patients themselves often describe the attack as something that encourages them to commit strange acts violently against their will.
Tourette's syndrome can occur in waves, with periods of exacerbation of tics with frequent attacks followed by periods of remission, in other cases the symptoms of the disease are constant. There, depending on age, the vast majority of cases the disease subsides after puberty, and can only occasionally during periods of emotional instability, tics manifest itself, and that is usually weak. Thus, Tourette's syndrome in children is several times more frequently than in adults.
If you do not suffer from Tourette syndrome, intellectual and psychological development of the child, there is a psychological problem in communicating with their peers when realizing their difference from others, and not being able to overcome it, the child begins to feel flawed, closed and suffers from depression. The rest of these children do not differ from their peers, and are capable of the same as all the others, to achieve greater success, as evidenced by the fact of having Tourette's syndrome have many well-known personalities.
Diagnosis of Tourette's syndrome
The diagnosis of Tourette's syndrome is made by characteristic clinical picture after a year of observation of the patient. When the first call for medical help to patients with similar symptoms is required to conduct a neurological examination to exclude organic brain damage, eg, due to cancer. When Tourette syndrome usually no deviations can not be identified, only a small percentage of deviations are determined in a striped bodies brain.
Treatment of Tourette's syndrome
Despite the fact that the symptoms of the disease known since ancient times, when they were treated like a man possessed by demons, and how the disease Tourette's syndrome was described as early as 1885, attempts to treat only began in the late 20th century.
Specific treatment of Tourette's syndrome does not exist. In most cases, the reception of pharmacological agents is undesirable, especially for a long time, as they have the side effects of which damage is considerably greater than the therapeutic effect. Typically, drug treatment of Tourette's syndrome is used during an acute state, to mute the symptoms. For this purpose, use antipsychotics and sedatives (tranquilizers) medications.
The main method of treatment of Tourette's syndrome in children is psychotherapy aimed to ensure that the child does not feel flawed and learned to treat their disease adequately, without putting their lives depend on it. Such therapy, despite the apparent secondary is very important, because children are easier to relate to the disease and are able, in spite of it, to establish communication with peers and live a normal life, the symptoms of the disease are more frequently with age. In addition, psychotherapy teaches the child the possibility to mute symptoms, redirecting abnormal activity in a proper direction.
Increasingly, in the treatment of Tourette's syndrome have resorted to a game method: specially designed games, animaloterapiya (therapeutic communication with animals), skazkoterapii, art therapy and other. Such methods help the social adaptation of the child and prevent the emergence of secondary psychological problems. Good effect have moderate exercise, and playing musical instruments, especially wind.
Attempts to treat Tourette's syndrome, surgical methods, as well as by direct electrical stimulation to the brain structures. In some cases, they have been proven effective, but however, are not widely used, as too high risk of damage to vital brain centers.