Rupture and damage to the meniscus
General characteristics of the disease
Under the menisci of the knee joint cartilage lining understood. They perform several important functions, chief among them - is the stabilization of the joint and its protection from damage during heavy loads. These tasks are cartilaginous pads successfully addressed by changing its shape during movement of the knee. Various damage, such as a torn meniscus, lead to severe pain, impaired function of the joints, significantly limiting the motor activity of man.
Cartilage pads are divided into two types. The lateral meniscus is located closer to the outside of the joint. It is quite mobile, and because of his traumatic injuries are rare. In turn, the medial meniscus is located far away from the middle part of the joint, which affects its mobility and, consequently, increased traumatic.
Causes damage to the meniscus
There are several factors that can cause injury to the joint. In most cases, damage to the meniscus is a result of indirect or combined injury. In addition, the cartilage lining can be easily damaged with a sharp knee extension, abduction or direct injury to the shin. Known and degenerative changes of the meniscus associated with chronic intoxication, rheumatism and microtraumas.
All joint injuries can be divided into several types:
- detachment of the meniscus - a departure from the attachment pads in the front and rear horns;
- torn meniscus in transkhondralnoy zone;
- degenerative changes, too strong mobility of the meniscus;
- cystic degeneration;
- combinations of these damages.
Damage to the meniscus - symptoms and the clinical picture of the disease
Symptoms depend on the damage of meniscus form of the disease. In the acute phase diagnosis significantly hampered by the fact that the damage to the meniscus is manifested in nonspecific signs of inflammation, which may occur as a result of other damage to the joint. Typical symptoms of the acute form - it is a strong local pain when walking, the presence of hemarthrosis, severely restricting movement. If the patient just diagnosed with acute form of treatment is usually not present any particular difficulties and leads to complete recovery.
If for any reason damaged meniscus failed to detect at the appropriate time, reactive conditions subside for a short period, after which the sick person appear: infiltration (fluid accumulation in the knee), effusion at the knee capsule slit strong swelling in the area of damage and eventually comes to a complete blockade of the joint. In the latter case, get rid of unpleasant feelings will only surgery on the meniscus, but the lead up to this, we do not recommend, since any surgery is a last resort.
Damage to the meniscus - treatment of the various forms of the disease
Selecting a method of treatment depends on the severity of the patient's condition. A small meniscus tear or minor degenerative changes easily cured with the help of conservative methods. But they will be completely ineffective at large rupture or blockade of the knee joint when the patient requires removal of the meniscus. However, the need for the operation does not occur frequently, as in most cases, the medial meniscus is suffering from moderate trauma.
Nevertheless, we want more detail precisely on the surgical treatment of lesions of the meniscus, because it makes it patients most questions
. When surgical intervention main goal of the surgeon is to maintain the main body of the cartilage lining
. This is possible if the torn meniscus is liquidated by a seam through the incision
. The operation on the meniscus is performed by arthroscopy
. Doctors performed a few small surgical openings and through them bridge the gap, using a miniature video camera and advanced tools
. This takes into account: the localization of damage, its orientation, the duration of injury, age of the patient and the stability of the knee joint
. The younger the patient, the less likely that degenerative processes, breaks and bundles lead to serious consequences
. The technique of arthroscopy is not suitable when the break with offsets
. In the latter case it is advisable to use a meniscectomy - removal of the meniscus, or rather its part removed
As mentioned above, the success of surgical treatment depends on many different factors. Even if the operation on the meniscus is successful, the patient must still be prepared for the fact that he would have to restrict locomotor activity and a few days walk with crutches. Swelling in the knee joint is maintained for 4-6 weeks. Only after this time, a man returns to a normal life can again fully work and play sports.