Water is the second most important after oxygen chemicals necessary for the chemical and metabolic processes in the human body. That is why dehydration can provoke a variety of diseases and disorders. Against this background, there is a development of various endocrine, cardiovascular, muscular and mental illness.
Causes of dehydration
Dehydration is caused primarily by removing excess water from it compared to its revenues. Water scarcity provokes the emergence of various diseases. For example, the water lubricates the joints, is involved in the processes of digestion and respiration, as human lungs need continuous moisture to release carbon dioxide from the blood and saturate it with oxygen.
Basically dehydration occurs because dry air that enters the lungs. The first reaction to this is increased urination, which means a significant loss not only of liquid but also of sodium chloride, which leads to violations of water-salt metabolism.
Blood loss of the necessary amount of water is reduced in volume and begins to circulate slowly, resulting in excessive stress on the heart. Thus, the body loses its ability to get rid of excess heat in hot conditions and distribute it - in the cold.
It was established that the body must be a day to 3 liters of fluid to maintain water balance, and in the hot season is the number increases. Therefore, its deficiency can cause dehydration. If the temperature exceeds + 35 ° C, the human body begins to heat up, especially when some physical exertion. Maintaining normal temperature and getting rid of excess heat is achieved by sweating. During this process, a person loses a lot of fluid that should be restored. If the required renewal moisture does not occur, such loss leads to a shortage.
The main causes of water shortage in the human body are:
- Intensive sweating;
- Increased urination;
- Severe nausea and vomiting;
- Acute diarrhea;
- Inadequate fluid intake, provoked by loss of appetite, or vomiting.
Symptoms of dehydration
The first symptom of dehydration is, of course, increased thirst, however, it is not at all evident from the beginning of the pathological process. The surest sign of his presence can be called a color change and the amount of urine, if its volume is significantly reduced, and the color became dark yellow, it indicates a lack of fluid in the human body and the need to make up.
In addition, a sure sign of dehydration are heavy sweating at high temperatures and physical exertion, dark circles under the eyes, a marked decrease in activity, fatigue and various violations of the senses.
It is known that the deficit in the first fluid has a negative effect on the brain, as it is at 85% of water. In terms of its lack of sharply reduced energy production in the brain, which greatly affects the senses. This is why the symptoms of dehydration and should be made such as:
- Irritability and anxiety;
- Discouragement and depression;
- The weakening of sexual desire;
- Heaviness in the head and headaches;
- Food addiction, craving for alcohol, smoking and drugs.
All these signs of dehydration may indicate the initial stage of depression, which may trigger the development of chronic fatigue in humans. According to some experts, the lack of water in brain tissue is a direct cause of the continuous social stress, accompanied by a feeling of insecurity, fear, anxiety and other emotional problems.
The most serious symptoms of dehydration that develop if the required amount of liquid is not restored, are:
- General weakness;
- Confusion leading to fainting;
- Gray and laxity of the skin;
These indicators are the lack of water left unattended, often lead to complications such as kidney damage, shock and even death.
Treatment of dehydration
Experts note that dehydration is easier to prevent than to cure. Therefore, regardless of the level of activity and state of health, it is necessary to use the maximum amount of fluid during the day. At risk are primarily young children and the elderly, especially when nausea and vomiting, diarrhea and fever.
Treatment of dehydration involves the constant use of water, but the loss of electrolytes is necessary to compensate for the lack of sodium and potassium. To restore the salt there are special formulations or as a glyukosolan tsitraglyukosolan that can be used both for prevention and in mild dehydration. It is recommended to be added to the drinking water a little salt during or after strenuous exercise. However, this method is considered effective only when the use of a large amount of drinking during the day.
When the fluid deficit leads to a significant decrease in blood pressure, which is life-threatening, intravenously administered solutions containing sodium chloride. In addition, for the treatment of dehydration is necessary to remove the cause which provoked it. For example, if you have diarrhea, in addition to the recovery of the desired amount of water to be taken drugs, corrective chair. If the kidneys eliminate a lot of water, you may need treatment with synthetic hormone.
When the cause of dehydration is necessary to monitor the fluid intake and to prevent recurrences. To do this, an adult is recommended to drink at least 2-3 liters of water daily, especially in hot weather and with significant physical exertion.