Insulinoma - this is one of the varieties of tumors that secrete significant amounts of insulin, which in turn leads to the frequent development of seizures in patients with hypoglycemia (low blood glucose in serum). Most frequent pancreatic insulinoma. Very rarely insulinoma may occur in the small or large intestine and the liver.
Insulinoma mainly affects people most working age between 25 and 55 years old. But children and adolescents, this tumor is practically nonexistent.
In 90% of cases of pancreatic insulinoma is a benign tumor. In some patients the appearance of insulinoma is one of the symptoms of multiple endocrine adenomatosis.
The main manifestation of insulinoma are hypoglycemic episodes caused higher blood insulin patients. Patients occur sudden attacks of severe general weakness, fatigue, accompanied by tachycardia (heart palpitations), sweating, anxiety, restlessness. At the same time patients experience severe famine. After eating all these symptoms disappear almost immediately insulinoma.
The most dangerous for insulinoma is patients do not feel the state of hypoglycemia. Therefore they can not promptly take food and stabilize their condition. With a further decrease in blood glucose concentration behavior becomes inadequate. Patients occur hallucinations, accompanied by sufficiently bright and imaginative paintings. There salivation, sweating, diplopia. The patient may take violent actions against the surrounding persons in order to take away their food.
A further drop in the level of glucose in the blood serum results in an increase in muscle tone, up to full-scale seizures. Tachycardia increases, blood pressure rises, and the pupils dilate.
If the patient is not given medical help, there comes a hypoglycemic coma. Consciousness is lost, the pupils dilate, muscle tone decreases, sweating stops, broken heart rate and respiratory rate, blood pressure falls. Against the background of hypoglycemic coma patient can develop swelling of the brain.
In addition to the attacks of hypoglycemia another symptom of insulinoma is weight gain up to the development of obesity.
It is important that not only the patients, but also their immediate family knew the symptoms of insulinoma to timely interrupt could attack of hypoglycemia, prevent the development of psychosis or coma.
Deficiency of glucose is detrimental to the neurons of the brain. Therefore, frequent and prolonged coma when insulinoma may cause the development of patient's vascular encephalopathy, Parkinson's disease, seizures.
Diagnosis of insulinoma
Diagnosis of insulinoma often provides considerable difficulties. If you suspect that human insulin is hospitalized and under close medical supervision appoint him fasting for 24 - 72 hours. When symptoms of insulinoma patient bled to determine its content of glucose and insulin. The presence of insulinoma indicates low levels of glucose and high insulin concentration.
At the next diagnostic step reveal the exact location of the localization of insulinomas. To do this, magnetic resonance or computed tomography, ultrasonography. In some cases, may require diagnostic laparoscopy or laparotomy.
The main treatment is surgery insulinoma. In the course of its produce to remove the tumor within healthy tissues.
In cases where surgical treatment of insulinoma for any reason can not be performed prescribed conservative therapy. It is a balanced diet of patients timely cupping hypoglycemia, drug therapy aimed at improving the metabolic processes in the brain.
Cupping hypoglycemia easiest way to offer the patient a glass of sweet hot tea or candy. In case of violation of consciousness should enter glucose solution intravenously. With the development of psychotic attack or hypoglycemic coma should immediately call the ambulance.