Copper - element of the eleventh group in the table of chemical elements of Mendeleev, atomic number 29. The main biochemical function of copper in the human body is a part of the element in enzymatic reactions. Copper is part of enzymes 11. It is involved in the blood, the synthesis of hemoglobin, cytochrome enzymes that play an important role in the metabolism of bile acids, steroids, unsaturated fatty acids and promote the neutralization of xenobiotics (poisons, drugs, drugs) in the body. Copper is an essential element for intrauterine growth and development of the child. A significant portion of the copper which is in the mother's body, the fruit is trapped. Copper helps to normalize metabolism of B vitamins, A, E, C, R.
It is believed that copper competes with zinc in the processes of digestion in the digestive tract. Thus, excess copper can cause zinc deficiency in humans. The World Health Organization to formulate rules regarding the content of copper in the human body: the risk of a lack of copper is much higher than the risk of excess copper in the body.
The excess of copper causes the development of certain diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Copper, which is contained in the water and vitamin-mineral complexes, is more toxic than copper contained in food.
Excess copper causes
Normally, a healthy adult human body contains about 100 mg of copper, and its concentration in the tissues of different organs. The highest concentration of copper in the liver (up to 5 mg per 100 g dry weight), while in the bone contains up to 0, 7 mg of copper. WHO recommends a daily rate of copper required for the normal functioning of the body, is 1, 5 mg. The maximum permissible dose ingested with food is 5mg. Because of the food consumed is absorbed only 5-10% of copper contained in the products. The day the human body is displayed around 2mg.
Causes excess copper in the body are:
- Excessive intake of copper in the body. Excess copper is unlikely when consuming foods rich in this element. Most likely he is by inhalation of fumes and compounds of copper and copper dust. The excess copper can also be triggered by household (use copper utensils, copper poisoning solutions). Excess copper in the body caused by inhaling fumes, called metal fume fever;
- Metabolic micronutrient in the human body;
- Multiple sessions of hemodialysis.
Symptoms of excess copper
The main symptoms of excess copper resulting from the use of products with high concentrations of this element are:
- Vomiting, nausea, diarrhea;
- Metallic taste in the mouth;
- Stomach ache;
- Renal insufficiency;
- Neurological disorders (increased salivation, behavioral disorders, speech, seizures);
- Liver failure.
Symptoms of excess copper in the poisoning of the body and pairs of copper compounds are:
- Headache, weakness, lethargy, reduced performance;
- Nausea, vomiting;
- Dry cough, chest pain, feeling of chest tightness;
- Chills and a sharp rise in temperature;
- Abdominal pain;
- A number of neurological disorders (dilated pupils, increased reflex activity of the brain).
With an excess of copper can also be observed muscle pain, depression, irritability. Also an excess of copper quickly comes blood hemolysis, which is manifested by jaundice and blood in urine. However, these symptoms develop when excessive concentration of copper in the body.
The excess copper at Wilson's disease
Wilson's disease - genetically determined metabolic disorder of copper, resulting in an excess of copper in the body and develop severe hereditary diseases of the central nervous system and internal organs.
If Wilson's disease is disturbed function of protein ATR7V binding copper in the liver cells. Excess copper not related protein in the liver leading to its inflammation and further fibrosis and cirrhosis. Copper is released from the liver into the blood and migrate throughout the body, settling in the eyes, kidneys, brain. Excess copper in these organs leading to their toxic damage.
The main symptoms are stiffness, due to a violation of the motor function of the body in the settling of copper in the brain, liver failure and cirrhosis of the liver, the appearance of the rim on the copper-colored iris.
The disease is treatable, the main directions of which are medicines to increase the output of copper from the body, the diet to prevent the excess copper, and vitamins. Patients with this disease requires lifelong treatment. It is a mistake to believe that the excessive concentration of copper in the body leads to the development of the disease. However, symptoms of the disease is caused by a violation of binding and output of copper from the body.
Excess copper in the body: treatment
In the diagnosis of excess copper in the body of the patient is assigned to treatment with drugs that target the binding and removal of copper from the body (chelators). In severe forms of intoxication appointed gastric lavage, infusion therapy, diuretics to increase excretion of copper. In some cases, the excess copper is applied symptomatic treatment.
With an excess of copper produced by industrial and poisoning couples prescribed expectorants, bronchodilators, antidote.