Hypoxia - a pathological condition characterized by oxygen deprivation of individual organs and tissues, or whole organism. Developed with a lack of oxygen in the blood and inspired air, or in violation of the biochemical processes of tissue respiration. The consequences of hypoxia are irreversible changes in vital organs - the brain, the central nervous system, heart, kidneys and liver. To prevent complications using various pharmacological agents and methods that enhance the delivery of oxygen to the body tissue and reduce the need for it.
Symptoms of hypoxia
All the symptoms of hypoxia can be divided into pathological and compensatory.
Pathological signs of oxygen deficiency include:
- Chronic fatigue;
- Deteriorating sight and hearing;
- Frequent headaches;
- Pain in the chest;
- Sinus arrhythmia;
- Spatial disorientation;
- Shortness of breath;
- Nausea and vomiting.
Compensatory symptoms of hypoxia may be any disruption of various organs and systems of the body:
- Deep and heavy breathing;
- Heart palpitations;
- Change in the total blood volume;
- Elevated levels of white blood cells and red blood cells;
- Acceleration of oxidative processes in the tissues.
Classification of hypoxia
Depending on the causes of the following types of hypoxia:
- Exogenous - reduced partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired air at low air pressure, indoors and in the highlands;
- Respiratory - oxygen deficiency in the blood in respiratory failure;
- Hematic - reducing the capacity of the blood for anemia and hemoglobin inactivate oxidants and carbon monoxide;
- Circulation - lack of blood circulation in the heart and vessels in combination with a large arteriovenous oxygen difference;
- Histotoxic - improper use of oxygen by tissues;
- Overload - excessive burden on the organs and tissues in the hard work, epileptic seizures and other cases;
- Techno - permanent residence in the contaminated environment.
Hypoxia can be acute or chronic. The acute form of short-lived and there, usually after intense motor activity - jogging or gym. Oxygen starvation of this kind has a mobilizing effect on the person and runs adaptive mechanisms. But sometimes acute hypoxia may be caused by pathological processes - airway obstruction, congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, or carbon monoxide poisoning.
Every body is different sensitivity to oxygen deficiency. Primarily affected brain. For example, in a stuffy, unventilated room the man soon becomes sluggish, unable to focus, feels tired and sleepy. All this - the signs of fading brain functions, even with a slight decline in the level of oxygen in the blood, which quickly returns to normal in the fresh air.
Chronic hypoxia is accompanied by fatigue happens in diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Smokers are also constantly receive less oxygen. Quality of life is markedly reduced, though irreversible changes of the internal organs do not occur immediately.
The development of this form of hypoxia depends on many factors:
- Type of pathology;
- The duration and severity;
- Environmental conditions;
- Individual sensitivity;
- Features of metabolic processes.
The danger of chronic hypoxia is that it leads to violations, reducing the ability of tissue to absorb oxygen. The result is a vicious circle - the pathology feeds itself, leaving no chance of recovery. This applies to both general and local disease, which affects only the part of the organism in atherosclerosis, thrombus embolism, edema and swelling.
The effects of hypoxia
Hypoxia is the work of all systems of the body:
- Worsens detoxifying and excretory function of the kidneys and liver;
- Disrupt the normal operation of the digestive system;
- Promotes dystrophic changes of connective tissue;
- It leads to the formation of osteoporosis, arthrosis, arthritis, osteochondrosis.
On the part of the central nervous system has slowed thought process, reducing the volume of the analyzed information, the deterioration of memory and speed of reactions.
The effects of hypoxia, dangerous for health and life:
- Premature aging of the organism;
- Reduced immunity and susceptibility to infections;
- The weakening of the anti-tumor protection;
- Depletion of adaptive reserves.
For these reasons, it is crucial to establish the etiology and diagnosis of hypoxia.
Treatment of hypoxia
Prevention and treatment of hypoxia, shall take account of the reasons that caused the lack of oxygen. As a rule, the acute form of injection used antihypoxants direct action as a first aid. These are drugs like amtizol, aktovegin, instenon, mildronat, sodium hydroxybutyrate, trimetazidine and others. In chronic hypoxia preference is given to herbal medicine. Choosing plant antihypoxant depends on what organs are affected.
Treatment of hypoxia performed in different directions:
- Recovering energy metabolism;
- Activation of oxygen to the tissue;
- Improve metabolism and detoxification;
- Reducing tissue oxygen demand.
Hypoxia is necessary to diagnose and treat in time to prevent the development of other chronic diseases. It is equally important to take preventive measures as well as the lack of oxygen is easier to prevent than to deal with its consequences. You need to lead a healthy lifestyle, get rid of bad habits, and regular exercise and hardening.