The term "blood glucose" has been proposed in the XIX century French physiologist Claude Bernard to indicate the index of blood sugar.
The level of glucose may be different: normal, low or high. Normally, the blood glucose concentration is equal to 3, 5-5, 5 mmol / l, with an important indicator of stability because, otherwise, the brain and the whole body can not function in the proper mode.
If sugar is lowered, talk about the so-called hypoglycemia, and when its level above the norm - about hyperglycemia. Both conditions are dangerous: at the exit beyond critical levels a person can lose consciousness and even fall into a coma.
Symptoms of glycemia
At normal concentrations of glucose in the blood glucose symptoms do not appear as the body works well and handle the load. In cases where a violation of the norm, there are a variety of manifestations of disease.
If you exceed the allowable numbers (hyperglycemia) symptoms of glucose following:
- Excessive thirst;
- Frequent urination;
- Loss of consciousness and coma (in severe cases).
Condition hyperglycemia characteristic primarily diabetics. In these patients, because of the absence or deficiency of their own insulin after a meal blood sugar rise (postprandial).
Certain changes in the functioning of the whole organism arise when hypoglycemia. It should be noted that sometimes such a condition peculiar to perfectly healthy people, for example, at high physical activity or a very strict diet, as well as patients with diabetes mellitus, if properly chosen dose of insulin or antidiabetic drugs overdose occurred.
In this case, the symptoms of glycemia following:
- A strong sense of hunger;
- Dizziness and fatigue;
- Coma or loss of consciousness (in extreme cases).
Determining the level of glucose
To determine the level of glucose used two main ways:
- Measure the sugar by a blood test;
- Test of tolerance to glucose.
The first detectable indicator - impaired fasting glucose, which is not always indicative of disease. This is a fairly common method which comprises determining the concentration of glucose in capillary blood (from the finger) after fasting for eight hours (typically in the morning after sleep).
Impaired fasting glucose, or IFG - a condition in which the sugar content in the plasma (or blood) above the normal fasting level but below a threshold value, which is diagnostic of diabetes. The figure of 6, 2 mmol / L is considered to be the boundary.
You should know that to confirm predictions and accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to undertake a study of at least two times, preferably on different days to avoid situational errors. For the reliability of the analysis results, it is important not to take drugs that affect hormones.
To verify the status, except to identify the level of fasting blood glucose, it is important to hold a second additional study: the test for glucose tolerance. Procedure for this assay is as follows:
- Standard analysis of blood glucose;
- Receiving the patient 75 g glucose (usually as an aqueous solution);
- Repeated blood sampling and analysis in two hours after an oral load.
Considered normal to the figures 7 and 8 mmol / l, if they reach 10, 3 mmol / L, it is desirable to pass an additional examination. Symptom of diabetes is in excess of the boundary 10, 3 mmol / L.
Treatment of blood glucose
In case of violation of glycemia treatment prescribed by a doctor, but the basis of all the therapeutic effects of the adjustment is lifestyle. Sometimes, especially in severe cases, drugs are used.
The most important thing in the treatment of glucose - a diet. Patients with diabetes should pay special attention to the glycemic index of foods and eat only those that have a low index. As in the case of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia in state should adhere fractional power that is often eat, but gradually. The diet must be present complex carbohydrates that are digested for a long time and provide energy for a long time. "Bad" carbohydrates, especially sugar and products made with white flour, it is recommended to exclude from the full menu. Proteins in food should be sufficient, but the fat should be limited.
No less important point in the treatment of glycemia is physical activity and concomitant reduction in weight. Recent large-scale studies in the United States, China and Finland suggest that even moderate weight loss and only a 30-minute daily walk reduces the risk of diabetes at more than twice.
Often symptoms are not manifested glucose or communicate with other diseases showing up randomly. In this situation, even if the patient's subjective well-being can not refuse treatment.
It should be noted that sometimes the blood glucose due to heredity, so those with a predisposition to diseases of endocrine nature, we recommend regular blood tests.