Analysis of urine
Urine is carried out in the laboratory to detect various diseases, assess the state of the body and the dynamics of the disease, the effectiveness of therapy.
The final diagnosis solely on the analysis of urine put, it can usually detect deviations and it serves as a pretext for the appointment of additional studies that could definitively identify the human kidney disease other internal organs, discover the hidden inflammation.
There are several types of research: biochemistry, urinalysis and method Nechiporenko.
general urine analysis
As a preventive measure, such an analysis is prescribed to all patients, for various reasons, go to the hospital.
The deciphering of the urinalysis parameters are specified as follows:
- colored urine;
- the proportion;
- protein, glucose, bile pigments and ketones;
- white blood cells and red blood cells;
- fungi, parasites and bacteria;
- epithelial cells;
- cylinders and salts thereof.
The norm is considered transparent and light yellow color of urine, the smell should be in focus. The share - a factor that shows the ability of the kidneys to concentrate, it should not exceed 1, 024.
Norma leukocytes for men - 0-3; 0-6 - for women; erythrocytes: for men - 0-1; 0-3 - in women.
The number of epithelial cells did not exceed 0-10.
Proteins, glucose, bile pigments and ketones, parasites, bacteria and fungi should not be in the urine of a healthy person.
Bad urine test called if found significant deviations from these norms. For example, the increase in the proportion may indicate diabetes, lowering - an excess of fluid in the body and diabetes insipidus. The reddish color of the urine indicates damage to the urinary ducts, bladder tumors, colorless urine - for advanced disease of the kidneys. It is undesirable that the urine has mucus or bacteria, its bad smell indicates poor metabolism, infection, diabetes. Increased protein indicates nephrotic syndrome and inflammation, glucose and ketone bodies - of diabetes mellitus. Bilirubin - one of the bile pigments, find people with liver disease.
Biochemical analysis of urine
Biochemical analysis made to assess the state of the internal organs and metabolism.
Performance analysis of urine:
- glucose. Its rate - 0, 03-0, 05g / l;
- whole protein - not more than 0 033g / L;
- amylase - 10-1240edl;
- potassium - 38, 4-81, 8mmol / day;
- phosphorus - 0, 4-1, 3 g / day;
- Sodium - 100-260mmol / day;
- creatinine - men - 0, 64-1, 6 g / l, at women - 0, 48-1, 44g / l;
- microalbumin - no more than 3-4, 25mmol / day;
- uric acid - 0, 4-1g / day;
- Magnesium - 3-4, 25mmol / day;
- Urea - 333-578mmol / day
Bad urinalysis who found deviations from these norms may indicate infection, poisoning, kidney disease, liver.
Analysis by Nechiporenko
If there is a suspicion of hidden inflammation of the urogenital system, carry out the analysis of Nechiporenko. For this analysis, take the middle part of the stream of urine, and pay attention to the increased level of white blood cells, red blood cells, cylinders. High levels of these indicators urine indicates infection, cystitis, prostate adenoma, pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, glomerulonephritis and other serious diseases of the kidneys.
Woman in pregnancy urine test passes at each scheduled inspection, as urogenital system is experiencing a heavy load, and its functionality should be kept under control. Interested doctors usually urinalysis.
The presence of protein in the urine is allowed, but not more than 300 mg / day. If the rate is too high, check the kidneys. With the dramatic increase in protein raises the question of hospitalization of the mother.
Elevated white blood cells in the urine sample during pregnancy indicate pyelonephritis, a kidney infection.
Turbidity urine indicates that it contains urates, phosphates, pus, calcium oxalate, leukocytes, bacteria, red blood cells.
The presence of ketone bodies during pregnancy indicates early toxicosis.
When you receive a bad urine women are advised to pass urine for bacteriological seeding, re-analysis of the total.
Analysis of urine in children
In most cases, a urine test is performed in children overall, but performance standards urine in the child differ from that of an adult.
The specific gravity of urine in newborn infants should not exceed 1, 018 children from the fifth day to two years 1, 002-1, 004, children 2-3l - 1, 010-1, 017, 4-5L - 1 012-1, 020, children after 10 liters - 1, 011-1, 025.
Norma leukocytes for boys - 5 girls - 7; erythrocytes - 3-4; epithelial cells - 1-2;
How to collect urine for research
To get the appropriate results of the analysis, on the eve of putting the patient urine is recommended to stop taking antibiotics uroseptikov and refrain from eating foods that can affect the color (asparagus, carrots, blueberries, beets, rhubarb). Liquid should be consumed in the normal amount, no more and no less.
Before collecting urine analysis in children, adults need to make an ordinary toilet genitals, but without the use of antibiotics and disinfectants.
It is undesirable to take the urine sample during menstruation, shortly after cystoscopy, in less than 12 hrs. After the last sexual contact.
Urine for biochemical analysis can be taken during the day, for urinalysis, research method Nechiporenko - only in the morning.
To analyze the collected urine is suitable only for two hours: it decomposes rapidly, and it may appear bacteria and salt that could affect the results of the study.