Semen analysis is a detailed analysis of the ejaculate (sperm), the study of sperm under the microscope. This analysis allows to evaluate male fertility, that is, its ability to conceive. Deviations from normal semen parameters show a decrease in the possibility of conceiving naturally. However, such deviations do not exclude the probability of conception. The decrease in fertility result in changes in sperm morphology, physical and chemical properties of the semen, the presence of foreign components in the semen.
Preparing for spermogramme
In three to five days before the study should exclude alcohol, drugs, particularly antibiotics. It is forbidden to visit the bath and sauna, as overheating sperm will lead to their death. Before examining the need to avoid unnecessary anxiety and stress. This period is mandatory abstinence.
Masturbation is considered the main way to get to ejaculate semen
. In preparation for the study was collected by all the sperm that is released during ejaculation
. Semen for sperm (from the very first and very last portion) was collected in a plastic sterile container
. Reliability of results of the study sperm depends on the conditions of transportation, as well as the time after which the container was transported to the laboratory
. Preferably, the container was taken for twenty minutes after ejaculation
. Do not get semen for sperm through interrupted intercourse, oral sex, sex in a condom
. Saliva components latex condom, vaginal discharge may affect the quality of the ejaculate
. For a reliable and objective result it is necessary that semen was performed four times with an interval of two weeks
The rules for the semen
Norms for the semen are the following values of the main indicators:
- semen volume (to 4 mL);
- sperm viscosity (0 to 5 cm);
- sperm concentration (more than 20 million per 1 ml of semen);
- sperm count (more than 60 million in the semen);
- sperm motility (A & gt; 25% or A + B & gt; 50%);
- sperm morphology (20%);
- the number of live sperm (50%);
- the number of cells in spermatogenesis (2%).
Explanation of semen
In the study, first of all, check the time of semen liquefaction. By increasing the sperm liquefaction longer gaining their full mobility. At very liquid semen probability of fertilization significantly reduced. The viscosity of the sperm is determined by the length of the thread formed in the run-off sperm with a special needle or pipette. Increasing the viscosity of the ejaculate is usually observed in chronic inflammation of the sex glands - vesiculitis or prostatitis.
Thick semen at semen analysis indicates a possible male infertility. To determine the viscosity of the semen, it is collected in a syringe and discharged through a special needle. It is important to analyze the volume of ejaculate. The optimal amount of ejaculate volume is considered up to 4 ml. A small amount of semen released indicates a very weak ability to fertilize the problem with men's health. Reducing the volume of the seminal fluid demonstrates insufficient seminal vesicles, prostate. Excess ejaculate volume may be due to an inflammatory process in the gonads.
Normally, the color of semen is yellowish white or grayish. The appearance of brown or red hue sperm is in chronic vesicles calculous form of prostatitis, genital injuries. Yellow sperm gets in the use of food dyes and some medicines.
On the possibility of conception, says the number of sperm. Count the number of sperm may be using a special microscope. It is considered a normal amount of twenty million sperm per milliliter of ejaculate.
In deciphering semen pay special attention to the mobility of sperm. After all, most motile sperm rather unite with the egg. Semen analysis helps determine the number of abnormal sperm.
Violations of reproductive function are determined by the acidity of seminal fluid. By spermogramme normal sperm should be pH 7, 2 to 7, pH 8. The deviation from the norm indicates a possible inflammation of the sex glands (vesicles, prostate).
Reducing the number of sperm spermogramme called oligospermia. Oligospermatism typically show a decrease in the efficiency of the testicles. Work testicles can be suppressed due to lower blood concentrations of male sex hormones, inflammation, epithelial damage suffering toxic testicular changes in the metabolism. Polizoospermiya - increased sperm count (more than 120 million / ml).
Sperm motility - the most important component of semen. As mobility of sperm can be divided into four groups:
- Group A - active sperm with rectilinear motion;
- Group B - slow-moving sperm with rectilinear motion;
- Group C - slow-moving sperm with rotary or oscillatory motion;
- Group D - the sperm immobile.
Asthenozoospermia - reduced sperm motility. Sperm motility may be reduced by a variety of diseases and all kinds of heat and toxic effects on the testes.
The morphology of the sperm is considered a very important indicator of semen. This indicator reflects the percentage of semen capable of fertilization of sperm. Nekrospermiya - reducing the concentration of live sperm. Agglutination (bonding sperm) may be observed in chronic inflammatory processes in the male gonads. If agglutination of sperm motility is almost always reduced.
Evaluation of the semen
Decoding semen is usually conducted by a doctor andrologist. If deciphering semen all indicators will be in the normal range, the chances of a rapid and successful conception are big enough. If there is any deviation, then about a month appoint repeated research. Since the results of semen analysis can vary, the final conclusions can be made only after two or three studies. It is worth noting that only the results of semen analysis can not accurately diagnose, as the probability of conception depends on many other factors - women's reproductive health, the frequency and duration of sexual intercourse, as well as the age and condition of the patient.