Pressure Measurement

 Pressure measurement mechanical tonometer
 Measuring blood pressure - an important diagnostic examination method. Blood pressure is considered by physicians as the main pre-medical procedure to hold that, where appropriate, it is important to be able to on their own at home.

Apparatus for measuring pressure

For this purpose, a special unit for measuring pressure, called a tonometer. It consists of the following elements:

  • Sphygmomanometer;
  • The pressure gauge.

The main parts are rubber sphygmomanometer cuff clamping the artery and the balloon (pump) for circulating the air. Gauges are spring and mercury.

Normally, blood pressure measuring blood pressure are applied using Phonendoscopes (stethoscope, stethoscope). The measurement is made on the hearing Korotkoff.

General terms of blood pressure measurement

Blood pressure should be measured by observing the following rules:

1. The room should be warm;

2. The patient should be comfortable to sit or lie on your back. Before measuring the pressure of a person should rest for 10 - 15 minutes. It should be noted that in lying position the pressure usually is 5 - 10 mm lower than when measured in a sitting position;

3. During the actual blood pressure measurement the patient should remain calm: do not talk and do not look at the unit itself for measuring pressure;

4. Hand the patient should be completely naked, palm facing up and conveniently located at the heart level. Raised sleeve clothing should not put pressure on the veins. The patient's muscles must be completely relaxed;

5. From the cuff apparatus for measuring pressure carefully kicked the rest of the air;

6. Tightly impose cuff on the arm, while not pulling it tightly. The bottom edge of the cuff should be located on the 2 - 3 cm above the bend in the elbow. Then tighten the cuff or connecting Velcro;

7. internal dimpled elbow puts a stethoscope tight, but without pressure. Best of all, if it is a 2-umya ears and rubber (PVC) pipes;

8. silence, using an apparatus for measuring the cylinder pressure gradually inflate the cuff, thus, the pressure in the pressure gauge registers;

9. Air is injected until until no tones or noises in the ulnar artery tones, then slightly raise the pressure in the cuff about 30 mm;

10. Now air injection is stopped. Slowly open the small valve in the cylinder. The air begins to gradually withdraw;

11. Fixes the height of mercury (upper pressure value), at which the first time I heard a clear noise. During this time, the pressure of air in the apparatus for measuring the pressure is reduced compared to the pressure level in the artery, in connection with which the wave can penetrate into the blood vessel. Due to this and call tone (from the sound of it reminds loud throbbing heartbeat). This value is the top pressure, the first indicator is a measure of the maximum (systolic) pressure;

12. With further lowering the air pressure in the cuff, there are unknown noise, and then tapped tones. These tones are gradually amplified and then become more clear and resounding, but then suddenly weakened and completely stopped. The disappearance of tones (sounds of the heartbeat) indicates the index of the minimum (diastolic) pressure;

13. Additional indicators detectable using the methods of measurement of pressure - the value of the amplitude of the pulse pressure or pulse pressure. This figure is calculated by deducting from the maximum value (systolic pressure) minimum (diastolic pressure). Pulse pressure - an important criterion for assessing the state of the cardiovascular system of the person;

14. These methods of measurement with the use of pressure indicators are written as a fraction, separated by a slash. The top number is systolic pressure, the lower - diastolic.

Features pressure measurement

 Automatic tonometer to measure the pressure
 When measuring blood pressure several times in a row, you need to pay attention to some features of the organism. Thus, the values ​​of the subsequent measurement, tend to be somewhat lower than in the first measurement. Exceeding the performance in the first measurement it can be caused by:

  • Some mental stimulation;
  • Mechanical stimulation neural network of blood vessels.

Therefore, blood pressure measurement should be repeated, without removing the cuff with hands after the first measurement. Thus, applying the methods of measuring the pressure several times, as a result of fixed average.

Pressure in the right and left arm are often different. Its value may differ by 10 - 20 mm. Therefore, doctors recommend the use of methods for measuring pressure on both hands and record the average value. Blood pressure measurement is carried out successively on the right and left hands, several times and the obtained values ​​are then used for calculating the average index. For this, the magnitude of each index (an upper pressure separately and individually lower) added and divided by the number of times was measured.

If a person has been unstable blood pressure, the measurement must be done regularly. Thus, we can grasp the connection changes in its level due to the influence of various factors (sleep, fatigue, food, work, rest). All this must be taken into account when applying pressure measuring methods.

Normal value, by using any method of measuring pressure is indicative of the pressure at 100/60 - 140/90 mm Hg. Art.

Possible errors

We must bear in mind that sometimes the upper and lower pressure can weaken the intensity of tones, sometimes significantly. And then this point can be mistaken for too high a pressure. If we continue to let the air out of the unit for measuring pressure, volume, tone increases, and they stop at the level of the lower (diastolic) pressure. If the pressure in the cuff is raised enough, you can easily make a mistake in the value of systolic blood pressure. So, to avoid errors, you need to properly use the methods of measurement of pressure: the pressure level in the cuff to lift high enough to "pressed", but letting the air, we need to continue to listen to the tones to full pressure drops to zero.

There's also one more mistake. If you strongly press stethoscope on the brachial artery, in some people the tones are heard to zero. Therefore, you should not put pressure directly on the head phonendoscope arteries and lower the value, the diastolic pressure, to fix on a sharp decline in the intensity of colors.