Oncocytology or Pap test - a way of a microscopic examination of cells taken from the surface of the cervix and cervical canal to identify cancerous changes.
Smear on onkotsitologiyu indicated for the regular passage for all women, especially in high risk patients, enabling to identify abnormal areas on the cervix, accurate diagnosis and correct tactics of further examination and treatment. Annual diagnostic study cervical onkotsitologiyu recommended:
- Women whose families have been cases of oncological diseases;
- Patients with high titers of human papillomavirus;
- Patients with cervical erosion.
Oncocytology cervix: Methodology
Oncocytology cervix is part of the normal gynecological examination, carried out quickly, virtually painless and does not require the purchase of expensive equipment and medicines. During the examination, the doctor obtains a biomaterial (a number of cells from the surface of the cervix) using a special cervical brush with soft bristles.
Immediately after the capture of biomaterial experts are ready to smear imprint: it concerns a doctor cytobrush the entire surface of the slide. The number of glass (preparations) can vary from one to three. Further prepared smear on onkotsitologiyu air dried, placed in a cuvette (narrow glass pot) and fixed 96 percent ethanol for 5 minutes. The next stage of testing - biomaterial research laboratory physicians cytology.
Keeping windows with fixed smears are allowed at 3-8 degrees Celsius for 10 days, and only in a sealed package.
Preparing for oncocytology
Oncocytology cervix does not guarantee accurate results if the survey was carried out against a background of inflammation in the genitals of women. An experienced doctor will recommend a Pap smear on the pass after the anti-inflammatory treatment. Also, it is not recommended holding oncocytology during menstrual bleeding.
48 hours before the study patients should refrain from sexual activity, use of vaginal tampons, creams, suppositories, douches, drugs. Before the test on onkotsitologiyu more appropriate to carry out personal hygiene with a vertical shower, refusing to 1-2 days from the bath. Smear on onkotsitologiyu taken to the gynecological examination or a colposcopy, or 48 hours after these procedures.
Interpretation of results oncocytology
A Pap smear can have a positive or negative result. Normally (with negative results oncocytology) cells taken biomaterial have normal size and shape. Positive smear detected in the case of cells with abnormalities.
Positive smear on onkotsitologiyu does not always mean that a woman has cancer. Common causes abnormalities in the Pap test is the presence of infections like chlamydia, gonorrhea, Trichomonas and Candida and human papillomavirus, which can cause genital warts in women's internal and external genitalia. Kondilomoobrazuyuschy virus can cause benign cervical changes. Human papillomavirus oncogenic risk may cause the development of cancer, which is characterized by the altered abnormal cells detected by the results oncocytology.
Cytological classification of Pap smear:
- 1st class. Normal cytology;
- 2nd class. There is a change in the morphology of the cells caused by inflammation of female genital mutilation;
- 3rd grade. Identified single cells with abnormalities in the cytoplasm and nuclei;
- 4th grade. Individual cells with distinct signs of malignancy;
- 5th grade. Large numbers of cancer cells. The presence of cancer is beyond doubt.
The treatment plan depends on the degree of cellular changes detected physician cytologist. If cell abnormalities are associated with an inflammatory process following treatment and smear on onkotsitologiyu repeated a few months later. Deviation high and low degree are always indication for colposcopy - a more accurate examination of the cervix, vagina and vulva using an instrument similar to a microscope. In case of expressed cellular changes specialist can take a sample for biopsy and further medical advice will depend on the results of the histological conclusion.