Genetic analysis is a collection of various experiments, calculations and observations, the purpose is to determine the hereditary characteristics and to study the properties of genes. Analysis of the genetic compatibility and analysis of genetic diseases doctors recommend women to take on the stage of family planning. Thus, it is possible to predict the future health of the child, to identify potential hereditary diseases and to find solutions to the problem of pathology. Usually, in practice, women spend genetic analysis during pregnancy has already occurred, so that identify the causes of miscarriage and birth defects of its development.
Indications for genetic testing during pregnancy
Genetic analysis of pregnancy it is necessary in the following cases:
- In women aged over 35 years;
- If the family Mom and Dad unborn child were hereditary (genetic) diseases;
- Previous child was born with congenital malformations;
- When the period of conception and pregnancy on a woman exposed to harmful factors (X-rays, radiation, drugs, alcohol, taking certain medications);
- If during pregnancy the expectant mother had been ill with an acute viral infection (ARI, influenza, toxoplasmosis, rubella);
- Whereas in the past women have miscarriages or stillborn babies;
- All pregnant women who are at risk on the basis of ultrasound and biochemical analysis of blood.
Gynecologist overseeing pregnancy, be sure to appoint a woman to the analysis of genetic compatibility and analysis of genetic diseases, if it belongs to the so-called risk group. It is older than 35 years, when sharply increases the risk of mutations and fetal malformations. To avoid unpleasant consequences later pregnancies and other risk factors listed above, a woman needs to analyze the genetic compatibility and analysis of genetic diseases.
Why is conducted genetic analysis
The main areas of laboratory research based on methods of genetic analysis are as follows:
1. Analysis of the genetic compatibility, determining paternity, maternity and other blood relatives;
2. Identification of the genetic predisposition to common diseases;
3. Identification of infectious agents;
4. Formation of the genetic identity of the passport.
Analysis of the genetic compatibility is also called the analysis of DNA or paternity test. For his conduct medical indications are not required, and the analysis of the genetic compatibility of privately by their parents. Often this type of research is used in divorce, division of property and other litigation. To establish the degree of relationship and the child can be before birth, during pregnancy.
Analysis of genetic diseases provides 100% result and may predispose the child to identify the following potential health problems:
- Myocardial infarction;
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- Bronchopulmonary pathology;
- Thyroid disease.
In time to make a genetic analysis of pregnancy, and found violations can affect the safe childbearing and adjust health of the unborn child.
Everyone knows that there are infections that can not be detected using traditional forms of diagnostics standard used in the monitoring of pregnancies. Methods of genetic analysis allows to quickly detect the DNA of infectious agents in the body, to classify them, to control their behavior and choose the correct treatment. So, making the analysis of genetic diseases can be identified such common diseases as Down syndrome, Edwards et al.
The expert's geneticist generates genetic passport person using methods of genetic analysis. This is a form of combined analysis of DNA, which contains the data and his profile, the uniqueness of the person. These data can provide invaluable assistance to a person for life, in all kinds of health problems.
Methods of genetic analysis
Traditional (non-invasive) methods of genetic analysis are:
2. Biochemical analysis of blood.
Fetal ultrasound as a method of genetic testing during pregnancy, carried out for 10 - 14 weeks. It is at this period can reveal abnormalities in the baby. Blood tests (biochemistry) are beginning to do at an earlier stage of pregnancy, it helps to identify chromosomal and hereditary (genetic) abnormalities, if it occurs. If you have suspicions, after an earlier genetic analysis in pregnancy, later in the period 20 - 24 weeks, making repeated fetal ultrasound. This method of genetic analysis to determine small defects in fetal development.
If the suspicions are confirmed, a woman prescribed invasive methods of genetic analysis:
- Amniocentesis (amniocentesis)
- Chorionic villus sampling (examination of cells, which are the basis for the formation of the placenta);
- Platsentotsentez (procedure for identifying the effects of recovering from an infection during pregnancy);
- Cordocentesis (study of umbilical cord blood).
Timely analysis for genetic compatibility and analysis of genetic diseases reveals about 400 kinds of pathologies of 5000 possible.
How is genetic testing during pregnancy
The main methods of genetic analysis using fetal ultrasound and biochemical analysis of blood - completely safe and harmless ways, for both mother and child. Ultrasound is performed through the abdomen of a pregnant woman, with the help of a special apparatus. Much less frequently used transvaginal ultrasound (machine inserted into a woman's vagina). Biochemical analysis was carried out using the patient's blood, the fence is made from a vein.
When invasive techniques of genetic analysis is the introduction to a woman's body. So, during amniocentesis, a special needle pierced the uterus and out of the fence is made of amniotic fluid (amniocentesis). This constant testing by ultrasound. Under chorionic villus sampling understand puncture into the abdominal cavity of women for taking containing material necessary to study the cells (base of the placenta). Occasionally, for this analysis, using the contents of the cervix. Platsentotsentez held, usually in the second trimester of pregnancy, under general anesthesia, as this procedure is considered major surgery. Cordocentesis - a method of genetic analysis in pregnancy, not earlier than 18 weeks. Blood from the umbilical cord is taken with the help of a puncture through the uterus of women. This also makes anesthesia.