Ultrasonography (ultrasound) the fetus - is the main method of diagnosis during pregnancy. How many times do pregnant women fetal ultrasound determines gynecologist, watching her. The objectives of the fetal ultrasound differ, depending on whether it is in what stage of pregnancy it is carried out.
Usually, the number of planned (mandatory) ultrasound does not exceed 5 times:
1. To determine the pregnancy itself - about a period of 5 - 7 weeks;
2. To evaluate the development of the fetus inside the womb, the placenta and the mother's condition and exclusion of malformations. Held ultrasound fetal heart - for the period 11 - 13 weeks;
3. To eliminate the defects, assessment of the placenta and amniotic fluid in it, and also to determine the sex of the child. Be sure to determine the dimensions of the fetus by ultrasound and ultrasound fetal heart - for the period 19 - 21 weeks;
4. To determine the approximate weight of the child and the state of the umbilical cord, as well as co-measurement the size of its head and the birth canal of the mother. Determines the size of the fetus by ultrasound - for the period of 32 - 34 weeks;
5. To prepare for childbirth, to anticipate possible complications - just before birth, with the first contractions or discharge of amniotic fluid.
The main types of fetal ultrasound and how they are carried out
There are some basic methods of fetal ultrasound, such as:
1. Transabdominal (sensor is located on the abdomen of women);
2. Transvaginal (probe inserted into the vagina).
Both types of procedure is completely painless for the woman and ultrasound for fetal harm.
Transvaginal ultrasound is a more accurate method. Recently, a very common way for more information about pregnancy and considered three-dimensional four-dimensional ultrasound of the fetus.
For three-dimensional, or 3D-ultrasound uses a complex computer program, which provides a perspective view of the fetus, which is based on two-dimensional (flat) images. In fact, three-dimensional ultrasound allows you to get an accurate picture of the fetus. Currently, this method of diagnosis is used for the early detection of fetal malformations that could be lost during a routine ultrasound. For example, using ultrasound fetal heart defects can be detected in the development of the organ.
Four-and 4D-ultrasound fetal allows you to see three-dimensional image of the child in real-time, with its visible movement and the work of all internal organs.
Expectant mothers are often concerned about the issue, whether the ultrasound is harmful to the fetus. So, modern ultrasound machines are completely harmless for mother and unborn baby. In addition, they make it possible not only to determine the size of the fetus by ultrasound, ultrasound of the fetal heart to do, but also print photos as well as record videos.
For ultrasound of the fetal heart using Doppler ultrasound. This device makes it possible to conduct a study of blood circulation in the blood vessels near the child and umbilical cord, and in vessels of the placenta of the mother. Doppler ultrasound data are important to detect early on potential health problems of the child:
- Malformations of the heart;
- Abnormalities of the blood vessels;
- Problems with the placenta.
Doppler ultrasound, doctors recommended for all pregnant women at gestational age of 12 and (or) 20 weeks.
Unscheduled US gynecologist can prescribe in the following cases:
1. bleeding from the genital tract;
2. Pain in the lower abdomen.
Frequent repetition of ultrasound to the fetus is not harmful and does not harm the normal development of the child.
In order to properly determine the size of the fetus by ultrasound, to reliably estimate the results of US spending transcript ultrasound of the fetus, a pregnant woman needs to know the basic rules of preparation for this procedure. First, you must find out what kind of ultrasound assigned (through the vagina or through the abdomen). On this depends the way to prepare for the US:
1. When transabdominal ultrasound in approximately 2 hours to drink at least 1 liter of water and do not go to the toilet before the procedure;
2. During the transvaginal ultrasound bladder had to be empty, so before the procedure you need to go to the toilet.
In addition, the woman before the procedure do not need to be nervous, and wonder whether the US is not harmful to the fetus.
Explanation of fetal ultrasound
The rules and parameters used to decrypt the fetal ultrasound may vary, depending on the duration of pregnancy. Explanation of fetal ultrasound performed doctor using special tables.
The size of the fetus by ultrasound are determined by the following indicators:
- Fetal head circumference (HC);
- Biparietal diameter (BPD);
- The length of the fetus from crown to rump (CRL);
- The length of the femur of the fetus (FL).
When interpreting fetal ultrasound determined the amount of amniotic fluid (amniocentesis). Abnormality of this parameter up or down, may indicate violations of the nervous system or kidneys of the fetus, as well as a signal of intrauterine infection.
Much attention is paid to fetal ultrasound deciphering of the placenta (afterbirth). US defines the following parameters of the placenta:
1. The thickness;
2. The degree of maturity;
3. Features of its attachment;
4. Status of development (eg presentation).
Sexing the baby using ultrasound occurs, usually on the third planned US (after the 20-th week of pregnancy). The degree of accuracy in determining the floor this method is not more than 90%.
When interpreting fetal ultrasound it is possible to identify the following malformations:
- Hydrocephalus - a cluster in the cavity of the skull the cerebrospinal fluid, which threatens the normal development of the brain;
- Anencephaly - a complete lack of the brain (fatal diagnosis);
- Myelomeningocele - a hernia of the spinal cord, which seriously threatens the development of the brain and the spinal cord of the child;
- Spina bifida - a process spina bifida. This threatens the normal development of the spinal cord of the child;
- Imperforate (atresia), duodenal ulcer - an anomaly that requires emergency surgery immediately after birth, making possible to restore patency of the intestine;
- Malformations of the fetus with an ultrasound of the heart - the deviation in its structure than disturbed blood circulation in the heart of a child. It is important to identify this is to, in the case of a dangerous spot, to perform the surgery immediately after birth;
- Down's syndrome - a chromosomal disorder in which there are multiple malformations and mental retardation of the child.