The study of feces is performed to detect diseases of the digestive system: stomach, liver, pancreas gland, inflammation in the digestive tract, disorders of nutrient absorption in the small, duodenum.
After identifying the disease and prescribing treatment, fecal do it again to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy.
Investigating the feces, pay attention to such indicators:
- Consistency - cal should be formalized and dense. Liquid feces indicates enteritis, colitis; mazevidny - in the absence of bile, a violation of the pancreas; pappy - colitis with diarrhea, chronic enteritis, dyspepsia the fermentation; foamy - colitis fermentation; sheep's elbow to accompanied by constipation; tape-like feces happens when hemorrhoids, tumors direct or sigmoid colon spasm of the sphincter;
- Color - feces should be brown because it has stercobilin. If the stool color black, it indicates the presence of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract; light brown feces - accelerated evacuation of stool from the rectum; yellow - on the fermentation dyspepsia, poor digestion in the small intestine; red - colitis with ulcers; light yellow or gray - on pancreatic insufficiency; White - stagnation of the bile duct;
- It smells - it leads to the existence of the decay products in the stool. Putrid smell suggests ulcerative colitis, digestive failure in the stomach; weak - about constipation, digestive disease in the colon; the smell of rancid oil indicates a problem with the flow of bile, a violation of secretions by the pancreas; sour smell in feces may be at fermentation dyspepsia;
- the pH of the reaction should be slightly alkaline feces or neutral;
- bilirubin, soluble protein, neutral fats, fatty acids, digestible cellulose, starch, leukocytes, erythrocytes, and the crystals should not be;
- muscle fibers and salts of fatty acids should not be at all, but their number may be negligible.
Preparation for Analysis
To study is not suitable cal conducted after cleansing enemas, use of rectal suppositories, laxatives.
The feces collected for analysis should not be urine, disinfectants.
Two days prior to assay the patient to stop taking medications that affect the function of the gastrointestinal tract, pilocarpine, tincture of belladonna, as well as those that contain iron, dyes, barium, bismuth.
In addition to general studies often analyze fecal bacteria overgrowth, fecal and blood worms.
More often take the fecal children - when you make them in the health and educational institutions, as a preventive measure during a baseline medical examination and school children in kindergartens. The most common cause helminthiasis becomes lack of personal hygiene. It is believed that this is one of the diseases of "dirty hands", so fecal worm infestations in children should be carried out regularly.
In addition, children and adults examined before admission, with accompanying symptoms of infection by worms.
Special training before taking stool samples on worms do not need to spend, feces were collected and pass on the basis of generally accepted rules. Normally ova should not be in the stool.
Fecal bacteria overgrowth
To study the intestinal microflora check feces on a dysbacteriosis. Doing the analysis, assess the content and the ratio of friendly bacteria: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, opportunistic bacteria: mushrooms, clostridia, Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, E. coli and pathogenic bacteria - Salmonella, Shigella, etc.
Normally, the latter two groups of microorganisms should be smaller than the bacteria from the first group.
Recommend to analyze fecal bacteria overgrowth during unstable chair - frequent constipation and diarrhea, flatulence, discomfort and abdominal pain, frequent skin rashes, intolerance of some products, intestinal infections, long-term use of hormones and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Spend as a fecal children newborn at risk, adolescents with frequent respiratory infections, allergies.
Study prescribed if there is suspicion of bleeding in the digestive tract - to identify the blood, which on microscopic examination to be seen.
Determined by analyzing the hidden blood in the stool bleeding from the gums, the veins of the stomach, esophagus, colon, inflammation and ulcers in the intestines and stomach, hemorrhagic diathesis, intestinal mucosa polyposis.
In addition to basic training, for the analysis of stool for blood, the patient must adhere to a special diet - eliminate the 3 days prior to the analysis of fish, liver, apples, spinach, meat, green onion, green vegetables, bell pepper, horseradish, beets, beans, white, tomatoes , pomegranates, blueberries, cancel medications containing iron. It is preferable to use milk, white bread with butter, cereal, mashed potatoes, cooked soft-boiled eggs, a small amount of fresh fruit. Because of the potential damage to the gums is not recommended for two days prior to analysis to brush your teeth.