In the course of studying the structure of cytology for the detection of malignant cells, benign tumor and non-tumor lesions of nature. The main purpose of the study - the confirmation or refutation of the fact that malignant cells taken for analysis.  Cytology - a method of diagnosing tumors and non-tumor formations

Cytology methods based on the study of the structure of cells under a microscope, the cellular composition of fluids and tissues.

There are such methods of cytology:

  • light microscopy;
  • Electron microscopy;
  • centrifugation method. It is used when it is necessary to separate the cell membranes from the total structure;
  • tracer method. Apply for studying biochemical processes in cells: it introduced them radiolabeled;
  • lifetime learning. This method allows the study to examine the dynamic processes in the cell.

Conclusion cytology based on characteristics of the change of the cytoplasm, the cell nucleus, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, education systems and structures of cells.

Apply cytological analysis during routine inspection, to clarify the diagnosis, during surgery for early detection of recurrences, control over the course of treatment.


As materials used for analysis:

  • fluids: urine, prostate secretion, sputum, swabs obtained during endoscopy of different organs, discharge from the nipples, prints and scrapings from the ulcer and eroded surfaces of wounds and fistulae, and serous fluid from the joint cavities;
  • punctate: biological material obtained during diagnostic puncture carried out a thin needle;
  • smears of the cervix cavity.

 The results of cytology
 Most of the cytology performed, if necessary, to set and confirm the diagnosis. But cytology cervical smear (Pap smear) is recommended to be held, once a year - women after 19 years, sexually active; twice a year - women who take hormonal contraceptives, ill genital herpes; more often than twice a year - for women who suffer from infertility, uterine bleeding, obesity, which often change sexual partners, take estrogens who have genital warts, genital herpes revealed.

Cervical cytology

For cervical cytology smear taken from the outside and the inside of the cervix and vagina with vaults with a special wooden spatula. Then he was transferred to the glass and fix.

Cervical cytology performed to detect changes in the cells of cancer, and the doctor's conclusions indicate one of the five stages of the status cell:

  • Step 1. Cells with disabilities are not found;
  • Stage 2. There are slight changes in the structure of the cells caused by inflammation of internal genitals. Fear is a state of the cells does not cause, but women are advised to undergo further examination and treatment;
  • Step 3: Look for a small number of cells with abnormalities in the structure. In this case, it is recommended to re-pass smear or histological examination altered tissue;
  • Step 4. Find the individual cells with malignant changes. The final diagnosis is not put appoint an additional examination;
  • Step 5. smear revealed a large number of cancer cells.

The validity of such a cytology is high, but it can give information only about the area from which the cells were taken for analysis. In order to assess the condition of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus must pass a comprehensive examination.