Colposcopy - the study of the vaginal portion of the cervix, its detailed examination using a binocular microscope - a colposcope. To maximize the amount of quality information during the procedure using additional tests: processing cervical Lugol's solution, and 5% acetic acid, the use of various optical filters. This allows the doctor to identify the most suspicious in relation to areas of tissue dysplasia.
Indications for colposcopy uterus
This study used for diagnosis of many diseases, including a colposcopy need to identify:
- genital warts;
- precancerous changes in the tissue of the vulva, vagina, cervix;
- cancer of the vulva, vagina, cervix.
Make uterus colposcopy is necessary to identify lesions ectocervix epithelium (surface of the lower part of the cervix), to determine their nature and location, make a diagnosis of benign changes in the vulva, vagina and cervix, to confirm or refute the appropriateness of a biopsy of the cervix to determine the site and method taking material for histological examination, choose a method of treatment revealed pathology.
Colposcopy in pregnancy for the purpose of making a thorough examination of the cervix, to prevent invasive disease and the possibility of developing cancer of the cervix to examine for the presence of tumors. The fact that most women are not screened before planning pregnancy. If they already had cervical pathology on the background suppression of the immune system (which is normal during pregnancy), it can progress and affect the health of the mother and the pregnancy. That is why during pregnancy colposcopy - mandatory study conducted, as a rule, without the use of diagnostic tests, and which can not harm the fetus.
Procedure - is absolutely safe, and appoint a colposcopy during pregnancy, as weighty contraindications to it does not, do not do this procedure only during the first 6 - 8 weeks after childbirth and after treatment of cervical surgery or destructive methods.
Contraindication to extended colposcopy is an intolerance of iodine and acetic acid.
Preparing for a colposcopy
In particular the preparation of the uterus for colposcopy unnecessary. The procedure is not carried out only during menstruation. Not very suitable period and the middle of the cycle, because at this time in the cervical canal a lot of mucus.
The best time to do a colposcopy - the eve of the menstrual period or a few days after its completion.
Before the procedure, the doctor is likely to recommend:
- for 1 - 2 days to abstain from vaginal sex without a condom;
- for a day or two do not use tampons;
- produce douching.
Carrying out the procedure
The procedure is performed as a regular medical examination in the gynecological chair. In the vagina mirror mounted sight that drew the cervix, allowing you to explore the epithelium of vaginal walls and cervix under a beam of light perpendicular to the direction of the location a few inches colposcope. The entire procedure usually lasts 10-20 minutes.
Colposcopy of the uterus can be simple (Overview) and expanded.
Simple colposcopy is no treatment of cervical any substances, and is viewed from the mucosa. According to her doctor determines the size and shape of the cervix, a condition of its surface, relief and color of mucous, especially vascular pattern, border cylindrical and squamous epithelium, the presence and nature of gaps, assesses the nature of discharge.
Colposcopy extended - a cervical examination after treatment of its surface with 3% solution of acetic acid, whereby, due to the short-term swelling surface layer of mucous membrane and contraction of blood vessels clearly apparent pathological changes in the surface of the cervix. The next step is to process the extended colposcopy tissue Lugol solution - for the diagnosis of precancerous lesions. The fact that under such conditions the epithelial cells are poor in glycogen, so the solution does not stain that gives the physician the possibility to detect them.
As a result of examination under colposcope gynecologist will decide whether to do a biopsy (ie, take tissue samples for further analysis).
After a colposcopy
If during biopsy procedures are performed, the activity after colposcopy not limited. Within 1-3 days rarely possible minor bleeding - this is normal. In this case, a few days should refrain from sexual intercourse, douching, tampons and medicines, until the bleeding stops.