Research methods intestinal today, there are several, but the most reliable method of detecting colon cancer is colonoscopy. Palpation of the abdomen, laboratory tests, radiation diagnostic methods (X-ray, ultrasound, imaging) also help the doctor in making a diagnosis. However, only colonoscopy allows intestine without surgery look inside and directly view the state of the intestinal wall.
Indications for colonoscopy bowel
Make a colonoscopy to confirm the diagnosis, doctors recommend that patients with these symptoms:
- black stools;
- blood in the stool;
- Iron-deficiency anemia;
- persistent diarrhea;
- serious unexplained weight loss;
- ulcerative colitis;
- pathology, revealed by X-ray examination of the colon;
- colonic polyps;
- chronic abdominal pain.
Be sure to do a colonoscopy if the patient has a family history of colon cancer.
In general indication for colonoscopy bowel is any suspicion of possible diseases of the colon. In some cases, the diagnosis initially prescribed irrigoscopy - X-rays of the colon, but in cases of suspected tumor often recommend a colonoscopy because its resolution is much higher.
- acute infectious diseases;
- late stage lung or heart failure;
- severe ischemic and ulcerative colitis.
Preparing for a colonoscopy
To study results as accurate as possible, in the lumen of the colon should be a liquid and feces. To do this, carry out special training for colonoscopy.
In just a few days, will determine the exact number of the doctor, the patient goes on a diet, which excludes from the diet slag products: beans, fresh fruit and vegetables, cabbage, black bread, some cereals.
Also be sure to step in preparation for a colonoscopy bowel cleansing, which is possible in two ways: medication or mechanical (ie using enemas). In the first case, the doctor usually appoints a special preparation Fortrans, which are beginning to take on the day before the survey. In the second case, put 2-3 cleansing enema on the evening prior to the procedure, and 2-3 in the morning just before the diagnosis.
When choosing a specific method of preparing for a colonoscopy, you should definitely consult a doctor.
Colonoscopy under anesthesia or without anesthesia?
Typically, a colonoscopy is carried out without anesthesia, patients with severe pain in the affairs of local anesthetic (Xylocaine-gel, ointment dikainovoy).
Many patients, afraid to do this procedure, wonder whether it is possible colonoscopy under general anesthesia. Doctors say that the vast majority of the survey does not cause pronounced pain. Moreover, in a number of states of anesthesia during a colonoscopy bowel simply can not be done, including in severe heart failure, severe stenosis of the aortic or mitral valve, an exacerbation of bronchopulmonary diseases, acute psychiatric and neurological diseases.
But there are situations when the preferred colonoscopy under general anesthesia, and it also has its indications, for example, massive adhesions in the abdominal cavity, severe destructive processes in the small intestine, children under 10 years.
Therefore, colonoscopy under local anesthesia is rarely used, if there is a need for analgesia, the advantage is given sedation - treatment of pain with special preparations, by which a person is immersed in the surface state of sleep medication.
Technique of the procedure
Colonoscopy, which is conducted by an experienced physician, lasts about 30 minutes. Before the procedure, the patient is given relaxing medication. The patient lay down on the couch on the left side, his knees drawn up to her chest. Used colonoscope - a long flexible instrument, about 1 cm in diameter. This device is introduced through the anus and moderate intake air distending gut, gradually moving forward. To facilitate the promotion unit patient may be asked to change position - to roll over on his back.
At the moment of overcoming bends intestine man may feel discomfort, cramping light and transient increase in pain.
If during a colonoscopy the doctor notices any disease, it makes a biopsy - removes small tissue samples for further analysis, which will help determine the nature of education. In this case, the study is slightly increased.
Complications from colonoscopy
Complications from colonoscopy bowel practically not observed. In rare cases:
- bleeding can occur after the removal of a polyp or biopsy, but it is usually minimal and stops quickly;
- adverse reaction to the sedative;
- the gap in the tissue being examined is extremely rare, quality inspection depends on the professionalism of the medical professional.