Bronchoscopy - a shorter name endoscopic method for assessing the lumen of the trachea, bronchus and evaluation of mucosa - bronchoscopy.
Indications for bronchoscopy
Bronchoscopy and lung used to diagnose and to treat.
Make a bronchoscopy is recommended for diagnosis in these symptoms:
- traces of blood in the sputum;
- persistent cough, with no apparent reason;
- suspicion of lung infection;
- violation of the breathing process;
- pathological changes as a result of X-ray inspection - nodules, seals, inflammatory processes.
In addition, the indications for bronchoscopy are:
- long experience of smoking with a view to preventive examinations;
- chronic bronchitis, obstructive pulmonary disease;
- suspicion of lung cancer;
- pulmonary atelectasis (ie, the state of the lung tissue where the alveoli lose their lightness).
Make light bronchoscopy for medicinal purposes is recommended for:
- Removal of airway foreign bodies;
- removal of tumors, blocking the airways;
- stent placement in one of the respiratory tract when, for example, it crushed tumor.
Make a bronchoscopy is necessary to:
- remove a benign or malignant tumor, foreign body, bronchial secretions and mucous plug of the bronchial tree;
- study the characteristics of the tumor;
- to find out the amount of bleeding, the degree of obstruction of the lumen of the bronchus, the location and nature of the foreign body;
- by obtaining a piece of tissue for cytological and microbiological studies to obtain additional information for the diagnosis of tuberculosis, bronchial cancer, fungal infections, interstitial pneumonia, lung parasitic infestation.
- myocardial infarction, myocardial less than six months ago;
- intolerance of drugs, which are used for local anesthesia;
- irregular heartbeat;
- acute stroke;
- stenosis of the larynx and / or trachea;
- hypertonic disease;
- exacerbation of asthma;
- cardiovascular or pulmonary heart disease;
- pain in the abdomen;
- neuro-psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, epilepsy, etc.);
- state after traumatic brain injury;
- severe patient's condition when the specification of the diagnosis has no effect on treatment.
Relative contraindications to bronchoscopy lung:
- the period of the menstrual cycle;
- the second half of pregnancy;
- cardiac ischemia;
- Acute respiratory infections of the upper respiratory tract;
- severe diabetes;
- enlargement of the thyroid gland (III-I level).
How is bronchoscopy
During bronchoscopy patient is connected to a monitor in order that the physician can observe the blood pressure, oxygen levels in the body and pulse. Human subject makes general anesthesia or intravenous sedative poured. Through the nose or mouth are administered extra oxygen.
On the back of the throat or in the nasal cavity is applied lidocaine - a local anesthetic is then administered brohofibroskop. The study lasts 20 - 60 minutes, if necessary, the doctor writes the received image, biopsy, or perform medical manipulations.
Possible complications after bronchoscopy
Each procedure is required to take into account the indications for bronchoscopy and contraindications of each patient, so the complications of her are rare. However, in some cases it may be:
- damage to the vocal cords;
- nose bleed;
- irregular heartbeat;
- bleeding at the biopsy site;
- insufficient supply of oxygen to the tissues;
- punctured lung;
- complications associated with the use of anesthetics and sedatives.