During pregnancy, for various reasons, may be violated condition of the fetus. The baby is surrounded by amniotic fluid - the amniotic fluid, which contains living cells of his skin, desquamation, but in the process of growth, and other substances. Their research helps to learn valuable information about the health of the fetus, and the name of this diagnostic method - amniocentesis.
What is amniocentesis?
Amniocentesis - a method of study of amniotic fluid. It is a piercing of the abdominal wall of the uterus. During the meeting taken small amount of amniotic fluid and conduct a number of studies: hormone (quantity, composition of hormones), immunological (detection of violations in individual immunity), biochemical (the composition of amniotic fluid). Summary analysis of these studies fluid helps determine the overall condition of the fetus and to identify the risk of genetic abnormalities.
What diseases can be detected by amniocentesis
There are several hundred varieties of genetic defects that can reveal a method of amniocentesis, including chromosomal diseases (Edwards syndrome, Patau and Down syndrome), neural tube defects (spinal hernia etc.).
However, birth defects such as cleft palate and cleft lip, amniocentesis does not show.
Indications for the passage of the study
The decision to use the method of amniocentesis can only accept pregnant woman, as this procedure carries certain risks. And opinions on the appropriateness of this study diverge. First of all, you have to be prepared for the fact that in case of detection of abnormalities may have to terminate the pregnancy. However, the timely detection of defects in the child will allow time to find out what help you may need.
And as amniocentesis presents some health hazard mother and her baby, offer to do this test only for women who have significant background to the development of the fetus genetic diseases, including in cases where:
- Ultrasound examination revealed a serious problem, such as a heart defect, which may indicate a chromosomal abnormality;
- According to the results of screening tests have a risk of having a baby with chromosomal abnormalities;
- One or more women relatives and / or father of the child have some genetic abnormalities;
- A pregnant woman more than 35 years, as this age increases the risk of having a sick child - one case of about 300 (compared to mothers aged 20 years, this ratio is 1 to 2000).
- The woman was already pregnant with genetic abnormalities in the fetus.
Amniocentesis - time and method of
Applied method of amniocentesis for gestational age 16 - 18 weeks (ie 14 weeks after the first day of the first menstrual period, which has not occurred). However, if your doctor has a reason to suspect the fetus developing heart disease or a serious genetic disease, it is allowed to amniocentesis for up to 14 weeks.
Also, in some individual cases, amniocentesis is performed and the timing with a view to later abortion, if that is medically indicated. In this case, the bubble is introduced concentrated salt solution or other preparation.
Conducts the diagnostic test obstetrician-gynecologist in the operating room. Before the procedure necessarily make pregnant ultrasound to determine the location of the placenta could be damaged during the puncture.
Himself puncture made through the abdominal wall of the uterus pretreated with a small area of the skin of the abdomen five percent alcohol solution of iodine. Anesthetize the puncture local anesthetic to reduce discomfort. Under the control of ultrasound doctor inserts a long thin hollow needle into the amniotic cavity and the gains of 15-20 ml of liquid that is sent to the laboratory analysis. In the laboratory, all chromosome count and determine their structure, however, the procedure lasts two-three weeks. The fact is that for diagnostic purposes need a certain number of cells kid, grown in special conditions, which is why the woman receives the results immediately.
Immediately after amniocentesis patient may experience pain in the abdomen.
Some observed after amniocentesis spotting. Therefore, usually, the doctor recommends bed rest for a day.
Also, after a while amniocentesis doctor will check the baby's heartbeat and observe the woman to prevent possible uterine contractions.
Contraindications to amniocentesis
- malformations of the uterus;
- the location of the placenta on the front wall of the uterus;
- the threat of termination of pregnancy;
- infectious processes, or fevers.
Consequences of amniocentesis
Conducting this research are subject to certain risks. Possible consequences of such an amniocentesis:
- The development of infection or other complications (in one out of 200 women);
- Bleeding from the woman or the fetus;
- The feeling contractions for several hours after the procedure - the most frequent consequences of amniocentesis;
- Miscarriage of a healthy child (1 in 500);
- Spontaneous abortion. Mother, whose negative Rh factor, before the procedure, in order to protect the baby from her antibodies injected Rho-gamma globulin. In 2 cases out of 100 it is this prick provoke miscarriage;
- Injury to the fetus (amniocentesis probability of such consequences is almost zero, but, nevertheless, it is possible, if the doctor needle touches a vital area of the child);
- Damage to the membranes, resulting in bleeding and the expiration of the amniotic fluid (the patient will have to go to the preservation, treatment may take up to several months);
- Premature birth.
That said, every woman, before agreeing to carry out the test should take into account the possible consequences of amniocentesis and weigh all the "pros" and "cons". In addition, the test result is still not able to guarantee the birth of a completely healthy child, it only excludes some pathology. Its accuracy is about 99, 4%. Therefore, every pregnant woman should consult with a geneticist, and only then make a final decision.