To confirm the prostate cancer, determining the stage of development of prostate biopsy: prostate moiety selected for further histological and cytological studies.
Perform a biopsy in three ways:
- under the control of the finger, blindly. The patient is placed on the right side, he draws in his legs to his stomach. Local anesthesia is used, using special gels anesthetics. After that, the doctor gently injected into the rectum needle while controlling its movement finger and puncture of the prostate produces 4-6. This method of diagnosis is considered obsolete and is used less often because of the lack of control over the procedure.
- Polifokalnaya biopsy. It is performed under ultrasound machine. Fragments of the prostate taken out of the 12 points of the body.
- Saturation biopsy. It is considered the most advanced and accurate method of diagnosis: the material for analysis is taken from the 24 points of the prostate gland. With this method the cancer can be detected early.
Indications for prostate biopsy
There are primary and secondary biopsy.
Primary prostate biopsy is performed for suspected cancer:
- elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen - more 4ng / ml;
- after revealing using transrectal or transabdominal ultrasound area of low echogenicity in the prostate gland;
- After identifying the node in the prostate or seal;
Repeat biopsy, if the result of the primary diagnosis was negative in these cases:
- elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen is preserved and grows;
- antigen density is higher than 15%;
- ratio of free antigen to total at least 10%;
- at the initial biopsy was discovered prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia of high degree;
- in the first study were taken enough material.
Given the fact that prostate biopsy maloboleznenna, practiced only a local anesthetic - used katedzhel, lidocaine gel, and other similar drugs. Carrying intravenous anesthesia allowed in rare cases, because This can cause complications.
Biopsy of the prostate can be only with the consent of the patient.
Preparing for a biopsy
Before the biopsy the patient goes through various tests: donating blood for general analysis, urine - for planting on the flora and the overall analysis. If the patient is taking anticoagulants should be canceled one week before biopsy: heparin, aspirin trombostop, fraxiparine, sinkumar and tested for the prothrombin index and time. If drugs can not be undone, prostate biopsy should be performed in a hospital.
The day before the procedure is undesirable dinner, the day of the biopsy may be a light breakfast. In addition, on the eve of the evening and the morning of the biopsy do a cleansing enema. If necessary, and medical advice to patients taking antibiotics for 24 hours before the procedure and 3-4 days after the biopsy.
Contraindications to biopsy
Prostate biopsy can not be performed in the presence of acute inflammation of the rectum, bleeding, stool, acute prostatitis.
Complications of Prostate Biopsy
Despite the fact that the biopsy is carried out in most cases, outpatient, the day of the procedure, it is desirable to arrange the hospital.
After a prostate biopsy complications are rare: there may be blood in the stool and urine, fever, difficulty with urination, inflammation of the testicles, epididymis and prostate, loss of consciousness, bleeding from the rectum, blood poisoning.
If complications due to prostate biopsy yet emerged, should seek immediate medical attention.