Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine considering disorders of the upper respiratory tract (nose and throat) and ear: GRT - ear, rhino - nose, laryngitis - throat. Otorhinolaryngology long name, so for convenience it sometimes abbreviated to ENT (Laryngo-Rhino-GRT). ENT diseases combined into one group, as anatomically ears, nose and throat communicate with each other, and pathology, which arose in one of those bodies, necessarily affects the function of the others. Accordingly, the need to treat these diseases comprehensively.
Otolaryngology is particularly important also because in the vicinity of the ear, nose and throat is the brain, and involvement in the inflammatory process is directly brain tissue injury. Also, nose and throat are the gateway of the respiratory tract, and respiratory failure leads to oxygen starvation of the whole body, including the brain, heart and other vital organs. That is why ENT diseases require careful to himself relations and careful treatment.
Since the throat and nose are the beginning of the respiratory system and throat and digestive still here "on guard" a large number of immune lymph tissue, since the lion's share of infections in the body acts this way. Thus, in the area of competence of Otorhinolaryngology and includes adjacent lymph nodes: velopharyngeal ring adenoids.
ENT disease affects people of any age and gender. These diseases are often infectious and inflammatory in nature (remember, nose and throat - atrium), much less tumor. Infectious diseases of the ears, nose and throat are extremely common and have a seasonal dependence. Most children are predisposed to it. This is due to the immaturity of age baby's immune system is often unable to cope with the high infection load. In this regard, an important place in Otorhinolaryngology on prevention of ENT diseases in children, however, as in adults.
Diseases ear, nose and throat are treated as a therapeutic or surgically. Currently, revised in the direction of tightening the indications for the most common operations in otorhinolaryngology - tonzillotomii (removal of tonsils) and adenotomy (adenoidectomy). Surgical treatment is used only when the possibility of conservative therapy are exhausted.