Pilocarpine relates to antiglaucoma drugs, aimed at the formation of acetylcholine, a reduction of intraocular pressure and to facilitate outflow of fluid from the eye cameras. The drug has no resorptive action, increases the secretion of sweat and digestive glands, improves the tone of smooth muscles of the respiratory system.
Structure and Composition
The main active substance - 10 mg of pilocarpine hydrochloride.
Supporting components: boric acid - 19 mg and purified water - 1 ml.
Pilocarpine is available as a 1% eye drops in 5-10 ml vial with the dispenser and 1-2% ophthalmic ointment.
The pharmacological properties of pilocarpine
Pilocarpine has Miotics action reduces ciliary muscle and causes muscle cramps circular eyes. The preparation promotes removal of fluid from inflamed eyes and lowers intraocular pressure by 25%.
Penetrating the cornea of the eye, pilocarpine is not absorbed and not absorbed into the bloodstream.
Within 30-40 minutes after application of the drug begins to be active and for 2 hours retained its therapeutic effect. Pilocarpine slightly delayed in tissues and is rapidly excreted within 2 to 4 hours. The drug is excreted in the intraocular fluid.
Good feedback on how the drug pilocarpine, which supports high efficiency of treatment in combination with beta-blockers.
Pilocarpine is indicated for the following eye diseases:
- closure glaucoma types with chronic and acute course;
- primary and secondary glaucoma (monotherapy and as part of combination therapy for the reduction of intraocular pressure);
- inflammation of the cornea;
- hemorrhage and destruction of the vitreous of the eye.
Positive feedback received pilocarpine as a drug for the rapid narrowing of the pupils, including diagnostic procedures before the eyes.
Instructions for use of pilocarpine
According to the instructions assigned pilocarpine 2 drops in the conjunctival sac eyes 2-3 times a day. Dosage may be adjusted in accordance with the diagnosis and recommendation of the attending physician.
In acute angle-closure glaucoma pilocarpine must be instilled every 30 minutes 2 drops within 3-4 hours, and then every 60 minutes 2 drops within 4-5 hours. During the subsequent treatment the daily dose should not exceed 6 drops.
Pilocarpine increases the effects of phenylephrine, beta-blockers and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. The drug reduces the therapeutic effect of atropine and agonists.
In accordance with the instructions pilocarpine should not be administered in large doses to patients with the bradycardia and hypotension.
During treatment, pilocarpine should monitor the intraocular pressure and vision. Patients who drives the vehicle and working on hazardous sites, limit their activities, since the drug slows psychomotor reactions.
Contraindications to pilocarpine are intolerance and hypersensitivity to the drug, the inflammation of the iris of eyes, inflammation of the ciliary body, keratitis, since the ophthalmic surgery and eye diseases in which the contraction of the pupil is contraindicated.
Precautions drops should be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding, children younger than 12 years, patients with retinal detachment in myopia and in the elderly.
Side effects of pilocarpine
Pilocarpine may cause headaches and dizziness, blurred vision and reduced discomfort in the eye, accommodation spasm, lacrimation, keratitis.
In some cases, may appear allergic reactions - itching, burning, dermatitis, urticaria, bronchospasm, angioedema.
In the long course of treatment may cause conjunctivitis follicular type and age of dermatitis.