Metformin - a diabetes drug that promotes better absorption of glucose. The World Health Organization has included the tool to the list of essential drugs.
The drug belongs to the group of biguanides, biguanide dimethyl active substance. Get it out of the plant Galega officinalis. Metformin inhibits synthesis of glucose by the liver (gluconeogenesis), thereby reducing blood sugar levels. In parallel with this preparation increases the sensitivity of insulin receptors, improving its assimilation promotes better oxidation of fatty acids and increases peripheral glucose disposal, reduces its absorption from the digestive tract.
Means reduces thyrotropin in serum cholesterol and lowering LDL, thereby inhibiting pathological vascular changes. It normalizes blood clotting, improves its rheological properties, thus helping to reduce the risk of thrombosis.
Reviews of metformin by Endocrinology confirm the information that it promotes weight loss in obesity.
Available as tablets for oral use, coated, 30, 60 and 120 tablets per blister. Tablets containing 500 or 850mg dimethyl biguanide. In addition to the main active ingredient in the tablet include starch, magnesium stearate, talc.
Analogs of Metformin
For analogs include drugs Metformin: Glyukofazh, Metformin-BMS, metformin hydrochloride, metformin Vero Metformin-Richter, Formetin, formins Pliva, Gliformin, Glucophage, Metformin Vero Novoformin, Metospanin. Metfogamma, Siofor, Glikomet, Metformin, Orabet, Bagomet, Gliminfor, glucones.
From the viewpoint of the pharmacological action of Metformin is an insulin analogue.
Metformin shown in the treatment of type 2 diabetes with preserved renal function and prediabeticheskogo state. The direct indication for type 2 diabetes is accompanied by obesity.
It is also used as part of combination therapy in the treatment of abdominally-visceral obesity.
During clinical use of metformin reviews were so positive that after the confirmed their clinical trials, in 2007 the drug was recommended for use in pediatric patients for the treatment of diabetes 1tipa, as an adjunct to insulin therapy.
Instructions for use of Metformin
Metformin tablets taken strictly after eating copiously with water. The first and the initial dose - 1000 mg per day for 1-2 weeks, the dose is gradually increased, its value is adjusted under the control of the laboratory data on the level of glucose in the blood. The maximum allowable dose of 3000 mg per day. The daily dose may be used at one time, but at the beginning of treatment, during the period of adaptation, it is recommended to divide it into 2-3 doses, thereby reducing side effects of the drug on the gastrointestinal tract.
The highest concentration of drug in the blood plasma observed after 2 and 5 hours after dosing, after 6 hours it begins to decrease. After 1-2 days of regular admission set constant concentration of drug in the blood, according to reviews Metformin is beginning to have a noticeable effect two weeks after the start of the reception.
When combined metformin and insulin necessary medical supervision, with high doses of insulin - in the hospital.
When used according to instructions Metformin is generally well tolerated, rarely causing side effects. If such nevertheless it is, as a rule, they are associated with individual or drug intolerance or with interaction with other drugs, or in excess of the dosage.
According to reviews Metformin often causes disorders of the digestive system, manifested in the form of dyspepsia in one form or another, as one of the symptoms of lactic acidosis. Usually these symptoms occur early in the course of treatment and after a period of adaptation pass. According to the instructions Metformin in which case you need to use a reduced dosage if severe lactic acidosis drug overturned.
With long-term use of metformin contributes to the disruption of metabolism of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), preventing its absorption in the gut, which can cause symptoms of B12 deficiency anemia. This condition requires a dosage adjustment.
Contraindications to metformin
The instructions Metformin contain the following contraindications:
- Lactic acidosis, available now or in history;
- Prekomatosnoe state;
- Hypersensitivity to any component of the formulation;
- Impaired renal function and concomitant diseases that may cause such violation;
- Adrenal insufficiency;
- Liver failure;
- Diabetic foot;
- All conditions that cause dehydration (vomiting, diarrhea) and hypoxia (shock, cardiopulmonary failure);
- Alcoholism. Please be aware that even a one-time joint metformin and alcohol can cause serious metabolic disorder;
- Infectious diseases in the acute stage, accompanied by fever;
- Chronic diseases in decompensation stage;
- Extensive surgery and post-operative rehabilitation;
Pregnancy, as well as children's age, is no longer considered an absolute contraindication to receiving the drug, since it is possible metformin for the treatment of gestational diabetes and juvenile, but in these cases the therapy takes place under strict medical supervision.
Metformin monotherapy is no risk of hypoglycemia in the complex treatment of diabetes, this risk can not be excluded, as is necessary to prevent the patient. Prohibited co-administration of the drug and intravascular radiopaque agents containing iodine. Any combined use of metformin and the other drug substance requires medical supervision. During the surgery, therapy, medication overturned 2-3 postoperative days. Instructions Metformin prescribed diet during the treatment period, thus avoiding sharp peaks and valleys in blood glucose, causing deterioration of health.
Metformin should be stored out of reach of children in a dry place at room temperature. The shelf life of three years.