Heparin - anticoagulant drugs that affect blood clotting.
Heparin sodium has a direct effect on blood clotting, blocking the production of thrombin, reduces platelet adhesion, improves coronary blood flow, activates the fibrinolytic properties of blood,
Heparin is accompanied by lowering of the cholesterol content in the serum, reduction of the amount of lipids in the blood.
Heparin due to its protective properties to inhibit the function of the body, possibly in autoimmune diseases (glomerulonephritis, hemolytic anemia), for the prevention of rejection in kidney transplantation.
Heparin sodium produced in the form of solution for injection.
Indications for use of heparin
The instructions are given heparin such indications for use:
- treatment and prevention of diseases associated with occlusion of blood vessels by blood clots;
- prevention of blood clots in myocardial acute, thrombosis, embolism of the main arteries and veins, blood vessels of the brain, eyes,
- vascular surgery and heart;
- maintaining the blood in the liquid state in the apparatus for providing hemodialysis and extracorporeal circulation;
- prevention of blood coagulation in the course of research in the laboratory.
Frequently Heparin solution was used as an adjunct in the treatment of fibrinolytic enzyme preparations.
Instructions for use of heparin
Heparin is carried out in a continuous form / infusion, intravenous, subcutaneous injection.
To prevent conducted subcutaneous injections of 5t. IU / day with a break 8-12ch. To prevent bruising alternate place of heparin.
The initial dose is 5 tons IU administered it intravenously. After the treatment is continued, infusing heparin using / in infusions. This method of administration is more effective as compared with periodic injections because less chance of bleeding opening and have the opportunity to provide a more stable anticoagulation.
In hemodialysis administered intravenously 10t.ME in the middle of the process - even 30-50t.ME.
Dosages for the elderly should be reduced.
For children, the following instructions are given heparin dosage: 1-3mes. - 800ME / kg per day; 4-12mes. - 700ME / kg per day; 6L older. - 500ME / kg per day.
Heparin may cause allergic reactions, dizziness, nausea, appetite loss, headaches, vomiting, diarrhea, thrombocytopenia (rare).
Due to the prolonged use of heparin may develop osteoporosis, calcification of soft tissues, bone fractures sudden, alopecia, hypoaldosteronism, increased liver transaminases.
Heparin and can cause local reactions: pain, flushing, sores on the skin, irritation, bleeding. Characterized by bleeding in the digestive tract, urinary tract, operating wounds, hemorrhages appear in the corpus luteum, adrenal glands, retroperitoneal space.
With an overdose of heparin may also open bleeding. If they are small enough for them to stop cease administration of the drug. If extensive blood loss, then neutralized with sodium heparin protamine sulfate (average dose - 100ME on heparin sulfate 1mg). When administered protamine sulfate should be considered during the last administration of heparin and adjust the dosage.
Contraindications to the use of heparin
As indicated in the instructions heparin contraindications to its use are diseases which are accompanied by bleeding (eg, vasculitis, thrombocytopenia, hemophilia), available already bleeding aneurysm of the brain, dissecting aortic aneurysm, stroke, hemorrhagic syndrome, phospholipid, trauma, hypertension, ulcerative lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, cirrhosis of the liver, which is accompanied by esophageal varices veins.
Heparin is also contraindicated during radiation therapy, menstruation, pregnancy, during and after childbirth, lactation, after the recent operations on the eyes, brain, prostate gland, biliary tract, liver, spinal cord after a puncture.
Women who use contraception as an intrauterine device, is also contraindicated the use of heparin.
It is not recommended for patients older than heparin 60l., Diabetes, endocarditis, pericarditis, tuberculosis active, with liver and kidney failure, a polyvalent allergy.