Steroids - substances of natural or synthetic origin of the Division of adrenal hormones.
Effect of corticosteroids on the body
By their chemical nature, these substances are steroids. In humans and animals the main place of education is the adrenal cortex. Corticosteroids generally increases the body's resistance to stresses, in this is the biological significance of these hormonal substances.
Corticosteroids affect the metabolism of the body, mainly on the carbohydrate, mineral, protein and water.
Artificial drugs act as anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, desensitizing, immunosuppressive, antitoxic and anti-shock agents.
The main effects of glucocorticosteroids
Its effect steroids implement penetrating diffuse through the cell membrane into the cytoplasm. There they bind to specific intracellular receptors through which affect the synthesis of the protein. We also know about the depressing effect of these hormones on phospholipase A2 and hyaluronidase enzymes that are inflammatory.
Substances of this group stabilizes cell membranes, so inhibit release of biologically active substances (histamine, leukotrienes, thromboxane) from mast cells. They slow down the formation of arachidonic acid pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Immunosuppressive influence glucocorticoid hormones used in medicine to suppress the immune system over-aggression aimed at your own body. This is required in organ (e.g., kidney, bone marrow), malignant tumors, autoimmune diseases. The positive effects of glucocorticoid treatment is achieved by suppressing the migration of stem cells and lymphocytes, as well as interactions between different groups of the lymphocytes themselves.
The ability of glucocorticoids increase the blood pressure is realized by increasing the adrenaline and restore sensitivity to adrenaline receptors, narrowing of blood vessels and decrease their permeability. This property allows them to deal with a state of shock in critical situations.
Glucocorticoids increase the degree of glucose in the liver, and the breakdown of proteins, thereby increasing the content of free amino acids and glucose in the blood. At the same time the body gets enough high-energy substances.
In medicine, drugs for the duration of corticosteroids are divided into 3 groups: short, medium and long duration of action.
It is a short-acting glucocorticosteroids hydrocortisone. This analog hydrocortisone own body, compared with other drugs, it has minimal effect on the water-salt exchange.
Preparations glucocorticosteroids average duration - methylprednisolone and prednisone.
For long-acting glucocorticosteroids include betamethasone and dexamethasone.
In the treatment of glucocorticoid use form preparations for oral, inhaled, intranasal and parenteral.
Preparations for oral administration are well absorbed from the digestive tract, blood, they bind to plasma proteins. They are used for the treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, subacute thyroiditis, Crohn's disease, interstitial lung disease and COPD in the acute stage.
Because inhaled corticosteroids are most often used budesonide, triamcinolone acetonide, beclomethasone dipropionate, mometasone furoate, fluticasone propionate. They are well suited for basic treatment of asthma and COPD, allergic rhinitis.
Nasal steroids are prescribed for nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis and idiopathic. The peculiarity of administration suggests that part of the drug falls to the nasal mucosa and the respiratory tract, and some will be swallowed, and gets into the digestive tract.
With care apply at their Cushing's disease, diabetes, thromboembolism, peptic ulcer disease, high blood pressure, severe renal insufficiency, herpes and systemic mycosis.
Also contraindications to glucocorticosteroids are active forms of syphilis and tuberculosis, pustular of the skin, viral eye disease, corneal epithelial defects, glaucoma, breastfeeding.
Intranasal corticosteroids should not be administered in repeated nasal bleeding, hemorrhagic diathesis, are hypersensitive.
During treatment with corticosteroids heavier flow measles and chicken pox.