The sacrum is a single bone formed fused together five bodies of the sacral vertebrae.
Thanks to this fusion of the sacrum is able to carry heavy loads, falling on him in connection with the vertical position of the human body. It has the shape of a triangle, whose base is drawn up, and the top -down. The base of the sacrum is connected to the body of the last lumbar spine and forms a protruding cape (projection).
Pelvic (front) surface of the sacrum is smooth and concave. It shows the four parallel transverse lines formed by fusion of the vertebral bodies. The back surface is convex and rough. It has five longitudinal bony ridges, which are the confluence of the joint, the transverse and spinous processes of the sacral vertebrae.
Pain in the sacrum
Among all the pains that occur in the spine, are the strongest pain in the sacrum. In medicine, they are termed hieralgia. Pain in the sacrum occurs more often in women. This is due to the fact that the female body of the vertebrae are not as strong as in men, and therefore they are much less well tolerated exercise. In addition to the sacrum women fall heavy loads during pregnancy and childbirth. The causes of pain in the sacrum can be:
- Traumatic injuries;
- Malformations of the sacral spine;
- Pelvic thrombophlebitis and / or iliac veins;
- infectious diseases;
- Extensions of the sigmoid colon;
- Metabolic disorders.
Besides pain in the sacrum may occur in women during menstruation, when the uterus and the wrong position in a number of gynecological diseases. In men, pain in the sacrum can be caused by chronic prostatitis or BPH.
Pain in the sacrum: Treatment
When the pain in the sacral region should consult a doctor neurologist. If necessary, he will appoint consultations related professionals: traumatologist, gynecologist, urologist.
Pain in the sacrum in the first place should be aimed at eliminating the causes that caused the appearance of this symptom. In addition, it shows the assignment of pain medication, massage, manual therapy. If necessary, your doctor may prescribe a number of physiotherapy. Pain in the sacrum and provides regular classes physical therapy patients.
Fracture of the sacrum
Sacrum fracture usually occurs in the fall on the buttocks or in direct impact and significantly less at squeezing the pelvic bones in the anteroposterior direction. Victims complain of pain in the sacrum. When viewed noticeable swelling in the injury. Severe fractures of the sacrum may be accompanied by profuse bleeding. Thus there is pain radiating to the sacrum lumbar spine and groin.
If you suspect a fracture of the sacrum should perform radiography in two projections. If you want to make radiographs and oblique sagittal projection.
At the turn of the sacrum treatment in most cases, conservative. Assign strict bed rest (lying on stomach) for three - four weeks. Surgical treatment is performed at a very limited indications (massive bleeding from damaged vessels, unstable fractures). During the operation stop produce bleeding (hemostasis) after which fixation is carried out by means of special screws. Victims do not have to switch to the active mode until fracture union, as Failure to do so may lead to the development of secondary neurological disorders.
After the cancellation of bed rest begin gradual activation of the injured patient, prescribe physical therapy, massage. Showing physical therapy sessions.